eTalks

Valsdarkroom: Exploring the Unexplored

Valerie is a photographer and explorer based out of Belgium. She is the queen of taking pictures of abandoned places.

The following is an interview with Valerie where she discusses her photography techniques, working process, and inspiration. The interview has been edited for brevity.

Niaz: Thank you, Val, for taking the time to join us at eTalks. We are thrilled to have you.

Val: Thank you for having me!

Niaz: You’re a photographer and explorer from Belgium. For the people who don’t know about you, can you start with telling us a little bit about yourself?

Val: I’m Valerie, but most people outside my close group of friends call me Val. I live alone in a small flat in Liège, Belgium and I love it there.

Niaz:  You do some complicated and amazing photography works. Before I dig into it, I would like to know how did you get started with photography?

Val: It started at a very young age, my dad is a hobby photographer and we used to have a dark room at our house. I learned to shoot with manual cameras and to develop my own black and white photos. When I was about 20 years old I hung out with a lot of skateboarders and I would take pictures of them. Photography has always been something I loved but it turned into a real passion once I started exploring abandoned places.

Niaz: As far as I guess your favourite subjects of shooting are abandoned places. On one side, it’s very hard to find those places. On the other side, it’s very hard to get access to them. But you have been exploring a lot of abandoned places. I understand it’s very challenging but that’s what you probably love to do. Can you please share us your inspiration of shooting abandoned places?

Val: Before I even thought of taking pictures in abandoned places like I do now, my friends and I loved finding abandoned places and checking them out, exploring without really seeing it from a photographer’s point of view. It is thrilling to find places and walk inside, find things and wonder why they were not used anymore. Abandoned places have something very peaceful about them for me. I don’t like crowded places much, they make me feel uncomfortable. While in a forgotten place you hardly see anyone there, I love that feeling. And I love wondering what happened and why things are left the way they are.

Niaz: Is there any specific book, movie, music, or something else that has been also instrumental for you to shoot abandoned places?

Val: Not really anything in particular to shoot abandoned places. It all came naturally, a next step in my life. I’m constantly inspired by life though, and with this also by music and movies, I used to make music myself, but that’s another passion I’m not gonna get into now :)

Niaz: Share us the stories of finding those epic location as well as getting access to them.

Val: In the beginning it was very hard, it’s sort of a closed off scene, hence why I started doing it alone. I looked at pictures from other people and tried to find clues as to where places were, that’s how I quickly found some classic places everyone gets to shoot when they start. Getting access is always a thrill, you never know what to expect, someone might give you advice, but by the time you get there the access has changed, or you have no info at all and you need to find your way in. Bottom line though: I never break anything to be able to get into a place, if there is no door unlocked, no window open, no basement access, etc. I walk away. As to finding places now, I have a good group of friends with the same passion from not only Belgium, also UK, Holland and France, and we sort of work together, help each other out.

Niaz: What type of cameras do you shoot with and what is your favorite lens set-up?

Val: I shoot with a Nikon D700, and my all round lens is the Nikkor 16-35mm f/4G, I also use a Nikkor 35mm f/2G for my detail shots. The bokeh on that one is just amazing. I would love to get a lense that is still a bit wider than my 16-35mm. I also have a little Sony nex5 camera that I always have with me. And I recently got an Instax camera that I have a little project with, a couple of those pictures are on my Instagram.

Niaz: Do you use any additional equipment, accessory or technology that helps for your composition?

Val: I use my tripod, Manfrotto MT190XPRO4, a very sturdy one. Sometimes I’m annoyed with it because I have to carry it and it’s heavy, but my camera is pretty heavy so I don’t have to worry it will fall over.

Niaz:  When did you join Instagram? Why have you chosen Instagram as a platform for sharing your art?

Val: I don’t remember when I joined Instagram to be honest, but I remember when I started my @valsdarkroom account, that was september 2013. I had been on instagram for a little while, but decided to make an account where I wouldn’t post any phone pictures, and it turned out to be pretty much only abandoned places.

Niaz: What are your favorite hashtags on Instagram?

Val: I check the #abandoned hashtag mostly, I used to be part of the whole group thing on instagram, but I stepped away from that, it is nice those groups are out there, but I don’t have enough time as it is, so I leave it to the people that have the passion for it. I did start my own hashtag #valexplores, at some point I might ask people to tag to it if they see something that they think I would like.

Niaz: Can you list some of your most favorite Instagrammers?

Val: Definitely @jamiebettsphoto, he’s a big inspiration, I especially love his post-processing skills. Some others I love are: @trashhand, @black_soap, @_soliveyourlife_, @le_blanc, @hannes_becker. You will notice that these don’t all shoot abandoned places, but pretty much all the people I follow are an inspiration to me on some level.

Niaz: You are very skilled in terms of using post-processing softwares. Your final output is very impressive. Tell us about the software and tools do you use for post-processing?

Val: Thank you. My main tool is Photoshop, I’m a real addict. And I also use the Nik collection and Topaz plugins. I used to process mostly HDR, this is several bracketed pictures combined into one. But nowadays I don’t do HDR anymore, I take several pictures with different exposure time and I mix them with layers in photoshop, until I get the good lighting for the overall picture. Then I start the real process of coloring and adding character to the picture. I spend a lot of time on my post-processing, it can go from 30min to several hours for one picture.

Niaz: What is the one most important lesson that you have learned since you started taking photographs?

Val: I’m not really sure, I would have to say: make sure to check your settings on your camera at all times. Sometimes you get carried away in the moment, and the excitement of being in these crazy places make you forget things. I once shot a whole day with my iso turned up way too high, I was just too excited and my pictures turned out like crap. Must have been one of those days…

Niaz: If you were advising a young photographer today, what words of wisdom would you share?

Val: Keep your eyes open, your eyes are the biggest tool you have, if you don’t see it, you won’t be able to take a good picture of it.

Niaz: Where do people find you to know more about you and your works? (Website, Facebook, Twitter …..)

Val: I have my own website (that I’m not being active enough on I have to admit) valsdarkroom.com. You can find me on Flickr as valsdarkroom. And I am @valdilda13 on Twitter.

Niaz: What does photography mean to you?

Val: That’s a tough question, it’s always been a part of my life and now it’s become the biggest part. If I could only take pictures and explore for the rest of my life, that would be a dream come true.

Niaz: Any last comment?

Val: Thank you so much for having me here! I thought it was gonna be hard to answer all these questions, but everything just flew out. Thanks again!

Niaz: Val, thank you so much for sharing incredible ideas with us. We would like to wish you very good luck for all of your upcoming great endeavors.

Ending Note: You can follow Valerie on Instagram at  @valsdarkroom. The interview has been conducted by Niaz. He is the founder and curator of eTalks. You can follow him on Instagram at @neohumanity.

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Previous Interviews:

01. Nois7 on Limitless Imagination

02. Abel Perez on Capturing the Future

03. iamcued on Unbound Imagination

04. Puji Faisal Nawawi on Behind the Beauty of Beautiful Art

05. Dominic Liam on Capturing the Shadows

06. Sloppystick on Photographing Abandoned Buildings

07. Debra Harder on The Art of Photography

08. Daria Khoroshavina: The Art of Metaphoric Photography

09. Cole Thompson on The Ultimate Photography Manifesto

10. Jeff Haden on Pursuing Excellence

11. Hugh Mac­Leod on Creativity and Art

James Kobielus: Big Data, Cognitive Computing and Future of Product

Editor’s Note: As IBM’s Big Data Evangelist, James Kobielus is IBM Senior Program Director, Product Marketing, Big Data Analytics Solutions. He is an industry veteran, a popular speaker and social media participant, and a thought leader in Big Data, Hadoop, Enterprise Data Warehousing, Advanced Analytics, Business Intelligence, Data Management, and Next Best Action Technologies. He works with IBM’s product management and marketing teams in Big Data. He has spoken at such leading industry events as IBM Information On Demand, IBM Big Data Integration and Governance, Hadoop Summit, Strata, and Forrester Business Process Forum. He has published several business technology books and is a very popular provider of original commentary on blogs and many social media.

To learn more about his research, works, ideas, theories and knowledge, please check this this this this this this and this out.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed James Kobielus recently to gain insights about his ideas, research and works in the field of Big Data which is given below.

Niaz: Dear James, thank you so much for joining us in the midst of your busy schedule. We are very thrilled and honored to have you at eTalks.

James: And I’m thrilled and honored that you asked me.

Niaz: You are a leading expert on Big Data, as well as on such enabling technologies as enterprise data warehousing, advanced analytics, Hadoop, cloud services, database management systems, business process management, business intelligence, and complex-event processing. At the beginning of our interview can you please tell us about Big Data? How does Big Data make sense of the new world?

James: Big Data refers to approaches for extracting deep value from advanced analytics and trustworthy data at all scales. At the heart of advanced analytics is data mining, which is all about using statistical analysis to find non-obvious patterns (segmentations, correlations, trends, propensities, etc.) within historical data sets.

Some might refer to advanced analytics as tools for “making sense” of this data in ways that are beyond the scope of traditional reporting and visualization. As we aggregate and mine a wider variety of data sources, we can find far more “sense”–also known as “insights”–that previously lay under the surface. Likewise, as we accumulate a larger volume of historical data from these sources and incorporate a wider variety of variables from them into our models, we can build more powerful predictive models of what might happen under various future circumstances. And if we can refresh this data rapidly with high-velocity high-quality feeds, while iterating and refining our models more rapidly, we can ensure that our insights reflect the latest, greatest data and analytics available.

That’s the power of Big Data: achieve more data-driven insights (aka “making sense”) by enabling our decision support tools to leverage the “3 Vs”: a growing Volume of stored data, higher Velocity of data feeds, and broader Variety of data sources.

Niaz: As you know, Big Data has already started to redefine search, media, computing, social media, products, services and so on. Availability of Data helping us analyzing trend and doing interesting things in more accurate and efficient ways than before. What are some of the most interesting uses of big data out there today?

James: Where do I start? There are interesting uses of Big Data in most industries and in most business functions.

I think cognitive computing applications of Big Data are among the most transformative tools in modern business.

Cognitive computing is a term that probably goes over the head of most of the general public. IBM defines it as the ability of automated systems to learn and interact naturally with people to extend what either man or machine could do on their own, thereby helping human experts drill through big data rapidly to make better decisions.

One way I like to describe cognitive computing is as the engine behind “conversational optimization.” In this context, the “cognition” that drives the “conversation” is powered by big data, advanced analytics, machine learning and agile systems of engagement. Rather than rely on programs that predetermine every answer or action needed to perform a function or set of tasks, cognitive computing leverages artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms that sense, predict, infer and, if they drive machine-to-human dialogues, converse.

Cognitive computing performance improves over time as systems build knowledge and learn a domain’s language and terminology, its processes and its preferred methods of interacting. This is why it’s such a powerful conversation optimizer. The best conversations are deep in give and take, questioning and answering, tackling topics of keenest interest to the conversants. When one or more parties has deep knowledge and can retrieve it instantaneously within the stream of the moment, the conversation quickly blossoms into a more perfect melding of minds. That’s why it has been deployed into applications in healthcare, banking, education and retail that build domain expertise and require human-friendly interaction models.

IBM Watson is one of the most famous exemplars of the power of cognitive computing driving agile human-machine conversations.  In its famous “Jeopardy!” appearance, Watson illustrated how its Deep Question and Answer technology—which is cognitive computing to the core—can revolutionize the sort of highly patterned “conversation” characteristic of a TV quiz show. By having its Deep Q&A results rendered (for the sake of that broadcast) in a synthesized human voice, Watson demonstrated how it could pass (and surpass) any Turing test that tried to tell whether it was a computer rather than, say, Ken Jennings. After all, the Turing test is conversational at its very core.

What’s powering Watson’s Deep Q&A technology is an architecture that supports an intelligent system of engagement. Such an architecture is able to mimic real human conversation, in which the dialogue spans a broad, open domain of subject matter; uses natural human language; is able to process complex language with a high degree of accuracy, precision and nuance; and operates with speed-of-thought fluidity.

Where the “Jeopardy!” conversational test was concerned (and where the other participants were humans literally at the top of that game), Watson was super-optimized. However, in the real-world of natural human conversation, the notion of “conversation optimization” might seem, at first glance, like a pointy-headed pipedream par excellence. However, you don’t have to be an academic sociologist to realize that society, cultures and situational contexts impose many expectations, constraints and other rules to which our conversations and actions must conform (or face disapproval, ostracism, or worse). Optimizing our conversations is critical to surviving and thriving in human society.

Wouldn’t it be great to have a Watson-like Deep Q&A adviser to help us understand the devastating faux pas to avoid and the right bon mot to drop into any conversation while we’re in the thick of it? That’s my personal dream and I’ll bet that before long, with mobile and social coming into everything, it will be quite feasible (no, this is not a product announcement—just the dream of one IBMer). But what excites me even more (and is definitely not a personal pipedream), is IBM Watson Engagement Advisor, which we unveiled earlier this year. It is a cognitive-computing assistant that revolutionizes what’s possible in multichannel B2C conversations. The  solution’s “Ask Watson” feature uses Deep Q&A to greet customers, conduct contextual conversations on diverse topics, and ensure that the overall engagement is rich with answers, guidance and assistance.

Cognitive/conversational computing is also applicable to “next best action,” which is one of today’s hottest new focus areas in intelligent systems. At its heart, next best action refers to an intelligent infrastructure that optimizes agile engagements across many customer-facing channels, including portal, call center, point of sales, e-mail and social. With cognitive-computing infrastructure the silent assistant, customers engage in a never-ending whirligig of conversations with humans and, increasingly, with automated bots, recommendation engines and other non-human components that, to varying degrees, mimic real-human conversation.

Niaz: So do you think machine learning is the right way to analyze Big Data?

James: Machine learning is an important approach for extracting fresh insights from unstructured data in an automated fashion, but it’s not the only approach. For example, machine learning doesn’t eliminate the need for data scientists to build segmentation, regression, propensity, and other models for data mining and predictive analytics.

Fundamentally, machine learning is a productivity tool for data scientists, helping them to get smarter, just as machine learning algorithms can’t get smarter without some ongoing training by data scientists. Machine learning allows data scientists to train a model on an example data set, and then leverage algorithms that automatically generalize and learn both from that example and from fresh feeds of data. To varying degrees, you’ll see the terms “unsupervised learning,” “deep learning,” “computational learning,” “cognitive computing,” “machine perception,” “pattern recognition,” and “artificial intelligence” used in this same general context.

Machine learning doesn’t mean that the resultant learning is always superior to what human analysts might have achieved through more manual knowledge-discovery techniques. But you don’t need to believe that machines can think better than or as well as humans to see the value of machine learning. We gladly offload many cognitive processes to automated systems where there just aren’t enough flesh-and-blood humans to exercise their highly evolved brains on various analytics tasks.

Niaz:What are the available technologies out there those help profoundly to analyze data? Can you please briefly tell us about Big Data technologies and their important uses?

James: Once again, it’s a matter of “where do I start?” The range of Big Data analytics technologies is wide and growing rapidly. We live in the golden age of database and analytics innovation. Their uses are everywhere: in every industry, every business function, and every business process, both back-office and customer-facing.

For starters, Big Data is much more than Hadoop. Another big data “H”—hybrid—is becoming dominant, and Hadoop is an important (but not all-encompassing) component of it. In the larger evolutionary perspective, big data is evolving into a hybridized paradigm under which Hadoop, massively parallel processing enterprise data warehouses, in-memory columnar, stream computing, NoSQL, document databases, and other approaches support extreme analytics in the cloud.

Hybrid architectures address the heterogeneous reality of big data environments and respond to the need to incorporate both established and new analytic database approaches into a common architecture. The fundamental principle of hybrid architectures is that each constituent big data platform is fit-for-purpose to the role for which it’s best suited. These big data deployment roles may include any or all of the following: data acquisition, collection, transformation, movement, cleansing, staging, sandboxing, modeling, governance, access, delivery, archiving, and interactive exploration. In any role, a fit-for-purpose big data platform often supports specific data sources, workloads, applications, and users.

Hybrid is the future of big data because users increasingly realize that no single type of analytic platform is always best for all requirements. Also, platform churn—plus the heterogeneity it usually produces—will make hybrid architectures more common in big data deployments.

Hybrid deployments are already widespread in many real-world big data deployments. The most typical are the three-tier—also called “hub-and-spoke”—architectures. These environments may have, for example, Hadoop (e.g., IBM InfoSphere BigInsights) in the data acquisition, collection, staging, preprocessing, and transformation layer; relational-based MPP EDWs (e.g., IBM PureData System for Analytics) in the hub/governance layer; and in-memory databases (e.g., IBM Cognos TM1) in the access and interaction layer.

The complexity of hybrid architectures depends on range of sources, workloads, and applications you’re trying to support. In the back-end staging tier, you might need different preprocessing clusters for each of the disparate sources: structured, semi-structured, and unstructured.

In the hub tier, you may need disparate clusters configured with different underlying data platforms—RDBMS, stream computing, HDFS, HBase, Cassandra, NoSQL, and so on—-and corresponding metadata, governance, and in-database execution components.

And in the front-end access tier, you might require various combinations of in-memory, columnar, OLAP, dimensionless, and other database technologies to deliver the requisite performance on diverse analytic applications, ranging from operational BI to advanced analytics and complex event processing.

Niaz: That’s really amazing. How to you connect these two dots: Big Data Analytics and Cognitive Computing? How does this connection make sense?

James: The relationship between Cognitive computing and Big Data is simple. Cognitive computing is an advanced analytic approach that helps humans drill through the unstructured data within Big Data repositories more rapidly in order to see correlations, patterns, and insights more rapidly.

Think of cognitive computing as a “speed-of-thought accelerator.” Speed of thought is something we like to imagine operates at a single high-velocity setting. But that’s just not the case. Some modes of cognition are painfully slow, such as pondering the bewildering panoply of investment options available under your company’s retirement plan. But some other modes are instantaneous, such as speaking your native language, recognizing an old friend, or sensing when your life may be in danger.

None of this is news to anybody who studies cognitive psychology has followed advances in artificial intelligence, aka AI, over the past several decades. Different modes of cognition have different styles, speeds, and spheres of application.

When we speak of “cognitive computing,” we’re generally referring to the ability of automated systems to handle the conscious, critical, logical, attentive, reasoning mode of thought that humans engage in when they, say, play “Jeopardy!” or try to master some rigorous academic discipline. This is the “slow” cognition that Nobel-winning psychologist/economist Daniel Kahneman discussed in recent IBM Colloquium speech.

As anybody who has ever watched an expert at work will attest, this “slow” thinking can move at lightning speed when the master is in his or her element. When a subject-domain specialist is expounding on their field of study, they often move rapidly from one brilliant thought to the next. It’s almost as if these thought-gems automatically flash into their mind without conscious effort.

This is the cognitive agility that Kahneman examined in his speech. He described the ability of humans to build skills, which involves mastering “System 2″ cognition (slow, conscious, reasoning-driven) so that it becomes “System 1″ (fast, unconscious, action-driven). Not just that, but an expert is able to switch between both modes of thought within the moment when it becomes necessary to rationally ponder some new circumstance that doesn’t match the automated mental template they’ve developed. Kahneman describes System 2 “slow thinking” as well-suited for probability-savvy correlation thinking, whereas System 1 “fast thinking” is geared to deterministic causal thinking.

Kahneman’s “System 2″ cognition–slow, rule-centric, and attention-dependent–is well-suited for acceleration and automation on big data platforms such as IBM Watson. After all, a machine can process a huge knowledge corpus, myriad fixed rules, and complex statistical models far faster than any mortal. Just as important, a big-data platform doesn’t have the limited attention span of a human; consequently, it can handle many tasks concurrently without losing its train of thought.

Also, Kahneman’s “System 1″ cognition–fast, unconscious, action-driven–is not necessarily something we need to hand to computers alone. We can accelerate it by facilitating data-driven interactive visualization by human beings, at any level of expertise. When a big-data platform drives a self-service business intelligence application such as IBM Cognos, it can help users to accelerate their own “System 1″ thinking by enabling them to visualize meaningful patterns in a flash without having to build statistical models, do fancy programming, or indulge in any other “System 2″ thought.

And finally, based on those two insights, it’s clear to me that cognitive computing is not simply limited to the Watsons and other big-data platforms of the world. Any well-architected big data, advanced analytics, or business intelligence platform is essentially a cognitive-computing platform. To the extent it uses machines to accelerate the slow “System 2″ cognition and/or provides self-service visualization tools to help people speed up their wetware’s “System 1″ thinking, it’s a cognitive-computing platform.

Now I will expand upon the official IBM definition of “cognitive computing” to put it in a larger frame of reference. As far as I’m concerned, the core criterion of cognitive computing is whether the system, however architected, has the net effect of speeding up any form of cognition, executing on hardware and/or wetware.

Niaz: How is Big Data Analytics changing the nature of building great products? What do you think about the future of products?

James: That’s a great question that I haven’t explored too much extent. My sense is that more “products” are in fact “services”–such as online media, entertainment, and gaming–that, as an integral capability, feed on the Big Data generated by its users. Companies tune the designs, interaction models, and user experiences of these productized services through Big Data analytics. To the extent that users respond or don’t respond to particular features of these services, that will be revealed in the data and will trigger continuous adjustments in product/service design. New features might be added on a probationary basis, to see how users respond, and just as quickly withdraw or ramped up in importance.

This new product development/refinement loop is often referred to as “real-world experiments.” The process of continuous, iterative, incremental experimentation both generates and depends on a steady feed of Big Data. It also requires data scientists to play a key role in the product-refinement cycle, in partnership with traditional product designers and engineers.  Leading-edge organizations have begun to emphasize real-world experiments as a fundamental best practice within their data-science, next-best-action, and process-optimization initiatives.

Essentially, real-world experiments put the data-science “laboratory” at the heart of the big data economy.  Under this approach, fine-tuning of everything–business model, processes, products, and experiences–becomes a never-ending series of practical experiments. Data scientists evolve into an operational function, running their experiments–often known as “A/B tests”–24×7 with the full support and encouragement of senior business executives.

The beauty of real-world experiments is that you can continuously and surreptitiously test diverse product models inline to your running business. Your data scientists can compare results across differentially controlled scenarios in a systematic, scientific manner. They can use the results of these in-production experiments – such as improvements in response, acceptance, satisfaction, and defect rates on existing products/services–to determine which work best with various customers under various circumstances.

Niaz: What is a big data product? How can someone make beautiful stuff with data?

James: What is a Big Data product? It’s any product or service that helps people to extract deep value from advanced analytics and trustworthy data at all scales, but especially at the extreme scales of volume (petabytes and beyond), velocity (continuous, streaming, real-time, low-latency), and/or variety (structured, semi-structured, unstructured, streaming, etc.). That definition encompasses products that provide the underlying data storage, database management, algorithms, metadata, modeling, visualization, integration, governance, security, management, and other necessary features to address these use cases. If you track back to my answer above relevant to “hybrid” architectures you’ll see a discussion of some of the core technologies.

Making “beautiful stuff with data”? That suggests advanced visualization to call out the key insights in the data. The best data visualizations provide functional beauty: they make the process of sifting through data easier, more pleasant, and more productive for end users, business analysts, and data scientists.

Niaz: Can you please tell us about building Data Driven culture that posters data driven innovation to build next big product?

James: A key element of any data-driven culture is establishing a data science center of excellence. Data scientists are the core developers in this new era of Big Data, advanced analytics, and cognitive computing.

Game-changing analytics applications don’t spring spontaneously from bare earth. You must plant the seeds through continuing investments in applied data science and, of course, in the big data analytics platforms and tools that bring it all to fruition. But you’ll be tilling infertile soil if you don’t invest in sustaining a data science center of excellence within your company. Applied data science is all about putting the people who drill the data in constant touch with those who understand the applications. In spite of the mythology surrounding geniuses who produce brilliance in splendid isolation, smart people really do need each other. Mutual stimulation and support are critical to the creative process, and science, in any form, is a restlessly creative exercise.

In establishing a center of excellence, you may go the formal or informal route. The formal approach is to institute ongoing process for data-science collaboration, education, and information sharing. As such, the core function of your center of excellence might be to bridge heretofore siloed data-science disciplines that need to engage more effectively. The informal path is to encourage data scientists to engage with each other using whatever established collaboration tools, communities, and confabs your enterprise already has in place. This is the model under which centers of excellence coalesce organically from ongoing conversations.

Creeping polarization, like general apathy, will kill your data science center of excellence if you don’t watch out. Don’t let the center of excellence, formal or informal, degenerate into warring camps of analytics professionals trying to hardsell their pet approaches as the one true religion. Centers of excellence must serve as a bridge, not a barrier, for communication, collegiality, and productivity in applied data science.

Niaz: As you know leaders and managers have always been challenged to get the right information to make good decisions. Now with the digital revolution and technological advancement, they have opportunities to access huge amount of data. How this trend will change management practice? What do you think about the future of decision making, strategy and running organizations?

James: Business agility is paramount in a turbulent world.  Big Data is changing the way that management responds to–and gets ahead–of changes in their markets, competitive landscape, and operational conditions.

Increasingly, I prefer to think of big data in the broader context of business agility. What’s most important is that your data platform has the agility to operate cost-effectively at any scale, speed, and scope of business that your circumstances demand.

In terms of scale of business, organizations operate at every scale from breathtakingly global to intensely personal. You should be able to acquire a low-volume data platform and modularly scale it out to any storage, processing, memory and I/O capacity you may need in the future. Your platform should elastically scale up and down as requirements oscillate. Your end-to-end infrastructure should also be able to incorporate platforms of diverse scales—petabyte, terabyte, gigabyte, etc.—with those platforms specialized to particular functions and all of them interoperating in a common fabric.

Where speed is concerned, businesses often have to keep pace with stop-and-start rhythms that oscillate between lightning fast and painfully slow. You should be able to acquire a low-velocity data platform and modularly accelerate it through incorporation of faster software, faster processors, faster disks, faster cache and more DRAM as your need for speed grows. You should be able to integrate your data platform with a stream computing platform for true real-time ingest, processing and delivery. And your platform should also support concurrent processing of diverse latencies, from batch to streaming, within a common fabric.

And on the matter of scope, businesses manage almost every type of human need, interaction and institution. You should be able to acquire a low-variety data platform—perhaps a RDBMS dedicated to marketing—and be able to evolve it as needs emerge into a multifunctional system of record supporting all business functions. Your data platform should have the agility to enable speedy inclusion of a growing variety of data types from diverse sources. It should have the flexibility to handle structured and unstructured data, as well as events, images, video, audio and streaming media with equal agility. It should be able to process the full range of data management, analytics and content management workloads. It should serve the full scope of users, devices and downstream applications.

Agile Big Data platforms can serve as the common foundation for all of your data requirements. Because, after all, you shouldn’t have to go big, fast, or all-embracing in your data platforms until you’re good and ready.

Niaz: In your opinion, given the current available Big Data technologies, what is the most difficult challenge in filtering big data to find useful information?

James: The most difficult challenge is in figuring out which data to ignore, and which data is trustworthy enough to serve as a basis for downstream decision-support and advanced analytics.

Most important, don’t always trust the “customer sentiment” that you social-media listening tools as if it were gospel. Yes, you care deeply about how your customers regard your company, your products, and your quality of service. You may be listening to social media to track how your customers—collectively and individually—are voicing their feelings. But do you bother to save and scrutinize every last tweet, Facebook status update, and other social utterance from each of your customers? And if you are somehow storing and analyzing that data—which is highly unlikely—are you linking the relevant bits of stored sentiment data to each customer’s official record in your databases?

If you are, you may be the only organization on the face of the earth that makes the effort. Many organizations implement tight governance only on those official systems of record on which business operations critically depend, such as customers, finances, employees, products, and so forth. For those data domains, data management organizations that are optimally run have stewards with operational responsibility for data quality, master data management, and information lifecycle management.

However, for many big data sources that have emerged recently, such stewardship is neither standard practice nor should it be routine for many new subject-matter data domains. These new domains refer to mainly unstructured data that you may be processing in your Hadoop clusters, stream-computing environments, and other big data platforms, such as social, event, sensor, clickstream, geospatial, and so on.

The key difference from system-of-record data is that many of the new domains are disposable to varying degrees and are not regarded as a single version of the truth about some real-world entity. Instead, data scientists and machine learning algorithms typically distill the unstructured feeds for patterns and subsequently discard the acquired source data, which quickly become too voluminous to retain cost-effectively anyway. Consequently, you probably won’t need to apply much, if any, governance and security to many of the recent sources.

Where social data is concerned, there are several reasons for going easy on data quality and governance. First of all, data quality requirements stem from the need for an officially sanctioned single version of the truth. But any individual social media message constituting the truth of how any specific customer or prospect feels about you is highly implausible. After all, people prevaricate, mislead, and exaggerate in every possible social context, and not surprisingly they convey the same equivocation in their tweets and other social media remarks. If you imagine that the social streams you’re filtering are rich founts of only honest sentiment, you’re unfortunately mistaken.

Second, social sentiment data rarely has the definitive, authoritative quality of an attribute—name, address, phone number—that you would include in or link to a customer record. In other words, few customers declare their feelings about brands and products in the form of tweets or Facebook updates that represent their semiofficial opinion on the topic. Even when people are bluntly voicing their opinions, the clarity of their statements is often hedged by the limitations of most natural human language. Every one of us, no matter how well educated, speaks in sentences that are full of ambiguity, vagueness, situational context, sarcasm, elliptical speech, and other linguistic complexities that may obscure the full truth of what we’re trying to say. Even highly powerful computational linguistic algorithms are challenged when wrestling these and other peculiarities down to crisp semantics.

Third, even if every tweet was the gospel truth about how a customer is feeling and all customers were amazingly articulate on all occasions, the quality of social sentiment usually emerges from the aggregate. In other words, the quality of social data lies in the usefulness of the correlations, trends, and other patterns you derive from it. Although individual data points can be of marginal value in isolation, they can be quite useful when pieced into a larger puzzle.

Consequently, there is little incremental business value from scrutinizing, retaining, and otherwise managing every single piece of social media data that you acquire. Typically, data scientists drill into it to distill key patterns, trends, and root causes, and you would probably purge most of it once it has served its core tactical purpose. This process generally takes a fair amount of mining, slicing, and dicing. Many social-listening tools, including the IBM® Cognos® Consumer Insight application, are geared to assessing and visualizing the trends, outliers, and other patterns in social sentiment. You don’t need to retain every single thing that your customers put on social media to extract the core intelligence that you seek, as in the following questions: Do they like us? How intensely? Is their positive sentiment improving over time? In fact, doing so might be regarded as encroaching on privacy, so purging most of that data once you’ve gleaned the broader patterns is advised.

Fourth, even outright customer lies propagated through social media can be valuable intelligence if we vet and analyze each effectively. After all, it’s useful knowing whether people’s words—”we love your product”—match their intentions—”we have absolutely no plans to ever buy your product”—as revealed through their eventual behavior—for example, buying your competitor’s product instead.

If we stay hip to this quirk of human nature, we can apply the appropriate predictive weights to behavioral models that rely heavily on verbal evidence, such as tweets, logs of interactions with call-center agents, and responses to satisfaction surveys. I like to think of these weights as a truthiness metric, courtesy of Stephen Colbert.

What we can learn from social sentiment data of dubious quality is the situational contexts in which some customer segments are likely to be telling the truth about their deep intentions. We can also identify the channels in which they prefer to reveal those truths. This process helps determine which sources of customer sentiment data to prioritize and which to ignore in various application contexts.

Last but not least, apply only strong governance to data that has a material impact on how you engage with customers, remembering that social data rarely meets that criterion. Customer records contain the key that determines how you target pitches to them, how you bill them, where you ship their purchases, and so forth. For these purposes, the accuracy, currency, and completeness of customers’ names, addresses, billing information, and other profile data are far more important than what they tweeted about the salesclerk in your Poughkeepsie branch last Tuesday. If you screw up the customer records, the adverse consequences for all concerned are far worse than if you misconstrue their sentiment about your new product as slightly positive, when in fact it’s deeply negative.

However, if you greatly misinterpret an aggregated pattern of customer sentiment, the business risks can be considerable. Customers’ aggregate social data helps you compile a comprehensive portrait of the behavioral tendencies and predispositions of various population segments. This compilation is essential market research that helps gauge whether many high-stakes business initiatives are likely to succeed. For example, you don’t want to invest in an expensive promotional campaign if your target demographic isn’t likely to back up their half-hearted statement that your new product is “interesting” by whipping out their wallets at the point of sale.

The extent to which you can speak about the quality of social sentiment data all comes down to relevance. Sentiment data is good only if it is relevant to some business initiative, such as marketing campaign planning or brand monitoring. It is also useful only if it gives you an acceptable picture of how customers are feeling and how they might behave under various future scenarios. Relevance means having sufficient customer sentiment intelligence, in spite of underlying data quality issues, to support whatever business challenge confronts you.

Niaz: How do you see data science evolving in the near future?

James: In the near future, many business analysts will enroll in data science training curricula to beef up their statistical analysis and modeling skills in order to stay relevant in this new age.

However, they will confront a formidable learning curve. To be an effective, well-rounded data scientist, you will need a degree, or something substantially like it, to prove you’re committed to this career. You will need to submit yourself to a structured curriculum to certify you’ve spent the time, money and midnight oil necessary for mastering this demanding discipline.

Sure, there are run-of-the-mill degrees in data-science-related fields, and then there are uppercase, boldface, bragging-rights “DEGREES.” To some extent, it matters whether you get that old data-science sheepskin from a traditional university vs. an online school vs. a vendor-sponsored learning program. And it matters whether you only logged a year in the classroom vs. sacrificed a considerable portion of your life reaching for the golden ring of a Ph.D. And it certainly matters whether you simply skimmed the surface of old-school data science vs. pursued a deep specialization in a leading-edge advanced analytic discipline.

But what matters most to modern business isn’t that every data scientist has a big honking doctorate. What matters most is that a substantial body of personnel has a common grounding in core curriculum of skills, tools and approaches. Ideally, you want to build a team where diverse specialists with a shared foundation can collaborate productively.

Big data initiatives thrive if all data scientists have been trained and certified on a curriculum with the following foundation: paradigms and practices, algorithms and modeling, tools and platforms, and applications and outcomes.

Classroom instruction is important, but a data-science curriculum that is 100 percent devoted to reading books, taking tests and sitting through lectures is insufficient. Hands-on laboratory work is paramount for a truly well-rounded data scientist. Make sure that your data scientists acquire certifications and degrees that reflect them actually developing statistical models that use real data and address substantive business issues.

A business-oriented data-science curriculum should produce expert developers of statistical and predictive models. It should not degenerate into a program that produces analytics geeks with heads stuffed with theory but whose diplomas are only fit for hanging on the wall.

Niaz: We have already seen the huge implication and remarkable results of Big Data from tech giants. Do you think Big Data can also have great role in solving social problems? Can we measure and connect all of our big and important social problems and design the sustainable solutions with the help of Big Data?

James: Of course. Big Data is already being used worldwide to address the most pressing problems confronting humanity on this planet. In terms of “measuring and connecting all our big and important social problems and designing sustainable solutions,” that’s a matter for collective human ingenuity. Big Data is a tool, not panacea.

Niaz: Can you please tell us about ‘Open Source Analytics’ for Big Data? What are the initiatives regarding open source that IBM’s Big Data group and others group (startups) have done or are planning?

James: The principal open-source community in the big data analytics industry are Apache Hadoop and R. IBM is an avid participant in both communities, and has incorporated these technologies into our solution portfolio.

Niaz: What are some of the concerns (privacy, security, regulation) that you think can dampen the promise of Big Data?

James: You’ve named three of them. Overall, businesses should embrace the concept of “privacy by design” – a systematic approach that takes privacy into account from the start – instead of trying to add protection after the fact. In addition, the sheer complexity of the technology and the learning curve of the technologies are a barrier to realizing their full promise. All of these factors introduce time, cost, and risk into the Big Data ROI equation.

Niaz: What are the new technologies you are mostly passionate about? What are going to be the next big things?

James: Where to start? I prefer that your readers follow my IBM Big Data Hub blog to see the latest things I’m passionate about.

Niaz: Last but not least, what are you advices for Big Data startups and for the people those who are working with Big Data?

James: Find your niche in the Big Data analytics industry ecosystem, go deep, and deliver innovation. It’s a big, growing, exciting industry. Brace yourself for constant change. Be prepared to learn (and unlearn) something new every day.

Niaz: Dear James, thank you very much for your invaluable time and also for sharing us your incredible ideas, insights, knowledge and experiences. We are wishing you very good luck for all of your upcoming great endeavors.

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Further Reading:

1. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger on Big Data Revolution

2. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

3. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

4. Brian Keegan on Big Data

5. danah boyd on Future of Technology and Social Media

6. Irving Wladawsky-Berger on Evolution of Technology and Innovation

7. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

8. James Allworth on Disruptive Innovation

Naeem Zafar: Entrepreneurship for the Better World

Editor’s Note: Naeem Zafar is the president and CEO of Bitzer Mobile, a company that simplifies enterprise mobility. On November 15, 2013 Oracle announced it has acquired Bitzer Mobile. As a member of the faculty of the Haas Business School at the University of California Berkeley, he teaches Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the MBA program. He is the founder of Startup-Advisor, which focuses on educating and advising entrepreneurs on all aspects of starting and running a company. His entrepreneurial experience includes working directly with six startups, and he has extensive experience in mentoring and coaching founders and CEOs.

Mr. Zafar holds a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Brown University (magna cum laude), Rhode Island, and a master’s degree in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota. He is a charter member of TiE .He is also a charter member of OPEN where he serves as the Board member.

You can read his full bio from here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Naeem Zafar recently to gain his ideas and insights about StartUp, social business and entrepreneurship for better world which is given below.

Q: You’re a successful entrepreneur. As a member of faculty of the Haas Business School at UC Berkeley, you teach entrepreneurship and innovation in the MBA program. At the beginning of our interview can you please tell us what exactly is entrepreneurship?

A: Entrepreneurship is a state of mind. It is a way to look at a situation and see how could you make a profitable venture out of it. It is very innate. People, educated or not in urban or rural setting, are just as likely to spot an opportunity and drive it to commercialization.  The likelihood is there just as it is for a Silicon Valley hotshot startup guy. So it transcends all boundaries of education, race and gender. It is a state of mind.

Q: You believe that entrepreneurship can be a powerful tool to alleviate poverty and extremism of the world and social businesses can fill the gap where public institutions often fall short. Can you please tell us more about that?

A: If you think about the definition of a business….its objective is to maximize shareholder return. So the shareholder who invests in the company has an expectation that the management should do whatever it can to maximize return; that is perfectly fine. We have seen tremendous companies and innovation come out of that model. But if there were a concept of setting up a company with the sole purpose of not  maximizing shareholders return but to address its social ill….. that can work for alleviating poverty.

It can be something as simple as the city doing lousy job of collecting garbage. Let’s say the garbage is not being collected on time which is very unpleasant as we know. We can set up a company so that there speedy pick up and disposal of garbage. The purpose of that company is to address this social ill. It is not to maximize shareholder profit. Imagine setting up the company with that objective and shareholders putting in money. This company’s objective is for this social ill to be addressed and not to maximize profit. Now, it is still a for profit company. It still pays market wages and hires the best people to address the issue but it is not trying to maximize profit.

This model which can be very rewarding for the shareholders as it is a new way of looking at solving many of the problems which governments are not well suited to solve. That’s called social business. I think the concept is a powerful one. It’s put forward by the Nobel laureate, Muhammad Yunus, in his 3rd book and I think it is a tremendous way for communities to organize and address issues which plagued them without having to wait for government to show up.

Q: How do you connect these three dots: social entrepreneurship, alleviating poverty and making a better world?

A: If you look at my previous answer I just connected the three dots for you.  Making a better world is about alleviating poverty and giving people a chance to participate in economic growth and well-being. Social businesses and entrepreneurship is a way for them to have that opportunity.

In the country that I grew up in you look for government to give you a good job. However, the government is not well equipped to provide a job for everybody. On the other hand, the private sector is well positioned. As we have seen in US, the private sector produced even submarines, bombs and fighter jets. This was quite shocking to me when I came to this country.

The government’s job is not to produce goods. Its job is to set policies and systems so that companies and entrepreneurs can thrive.

Q: How did you find the idea for Bitzer Mobile? Can you please briefly tell us about Bitzer Mobile?

A: Bitzer Mobile’s technical founder, Ali Ahmed, was working as a software architect for large companies in insurance and oil verticals for many years. He continued to recognize that people were struggling to allow employees mobile access to data.

Ali was having to solve the problem for every company in a unique way. So the idea was, why not come up with the way so that the employees can easily and securely access corporate data and be productive from wherever they happen to be. And that gave birth to Bitzer.

Q: As far as I believe for changing the world, we need to find complex, interesting  and  big problems of the world and then have to build great organizations that will sustain in the long run to keep solving those problems as well as to keep contributing for the betterment of the mother earth. Can you please tell us how can we find interesting, complex and big problems of this world?

A: First of all, I don’t agree with your definition. It is not about solving big problems. It is about solving problems. Problems of all sizes. Sometimes all you have to do is look around you. There are problems in your community, where you live, where you work. Solve those problems. Big ideas come from people trying to solve small problems which turn into great movements. So looking for the great problems to solve is not the only way and may not be most efficient way to do it either.

Q: What are your suggestions on finding interesting ideas and bringing the ideas to life to solve?

A: Interesting ideas to solve come from deep domain knowledge. It’s very difficult for entrepreneurs when they are young to come up with ideas as they can be light weight. The average age of an entrepreneur in America is 37. This means that many people are older than 37 when they start their company. So only if you worked in the industry for 5-10 years you really understand what issues are, what the problems are, and then you can see how you can solve them. So my advice is:  look around you, work in some industry, learn the hard skills. Then you will see the problem and you will be well equipped to solve them. This is how you address this issue.

Q: What are your takes on finding the right business model and identifying early customers?

A: To find the right business model and early customers is simple. You should be able to answer these two fundamental questions: what problem are you solving and who has this problem.  If you cannot concisely answer these two questions you don’t have clarity in your head. I insist that people should talk to 5 to 10 actual users and buyers of whatever product they’re planning to buy and try to understand what their pain is. If you cannot clearly articulate what pain your customers have do not start the company. Then discuss with customers what you are planning to do and if this would be interested in it. If you cannot generate this early customer interest, do not start the company.

And stop worrying about confidentiality. People have other problems to solve in their lives. They are not running to copy your idea. It is the execution of your idea that is the hard part. By bouncing these ideas off suitable customers and users and consistently getting positive feedback, you may be in a position to start the company and then they likely will buy it. Everything else will clarify itself during the course of this process.

Q: Can you please tell us about the legal process of starting a company?

A: Legal process depends on in which country you are starting the company in, what the local regulations are.  My book which is a legal guide for entrepreneurs goes into fair amount of details: What is the process, what options you have in the United States. So read the book. It’s available at naeemzafar.com.

Q: As you’ve seen during Internet bubble, there were so many companies founded and were committed to change the world. But with the changes of time around 90% of them got obsolete. And we ended up having some great companies. Now, there are also so many startups working with cloud computing, big data, wearable technologies, space, robotics and so on. The data shows most of them will also get obsolete as the success rate of startups is very low. But there are always some common characteristics, values,  philosophies and ideas that  keep some startups alive and helps to sustain in the long run. You have profound experience of seeing all the trends as you have been advising companies and working with great entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley. What are your suggestions on building the next big organization?

A: Aspect of building the next big organization is about solving a big problem. It is easy to spot what are the problems that need to be solved. All the trends you mention have tremendous potential.

Big data and business analytics can pinpoint precisely if you put a restaurant in the corner of this street and that street. They tell you what will be your monthly sales when you put it in the corner of that street and that street. So, the way businesses will be making decision could be based on not intuition but actual data.

If you read the book or watch the movie called Moneyball, it is about applying statistics to baseball. It is about how a mediocre team became the number one team by using big data. And that is applicable to every single business. So look for a big idea around you and build a great team with high caliber people. If you can put together a right market with the right team, you can build a lasting company too.

Q: How do you think about hiring remarkable people and let them scope to work on achieving vision that will change our world for good?

A: I think it’s good idea to hire remarkable people. You should do that. It’s not easy to do that. Remember the good people  will follow somebody which they can respect and whose vision they share. If you don’t have the passion and vision yourself why would A people, A players, best players follow you. Best players want to follow someone that they believe in. If you have that you shall attract the right team. And yes, you will be able to do great things. So step up to the stage and stage could be yours.

Q:  Whenever we talk about changing the world, thing that always comes first is changing ourselves. After changing our own life, we can go and change our family, then our society and then our country and then we can have a mission of changing the world to make it a better place to live in. But changing the world is hard, complex, challenging and hurting. You have come a long way and have already left a body of works to make this  world a bit more special. Can you please tell us about what your life has thought you in this amazing journey?

A: What my life has taught me is that it’s not a sprint. It is a marathon. So you have to create your own brand. You have to be genuine and honest and people will follow you . If you have  a vision that attracts people, you will have easy time attracting them.

So my advice to myself and other people around me is that if you’re a genuine person and a truthful person and you have a strong vision and can articulate it, you will have people willing to follow you. Once you have people willing to follow you then there is no challenge you cannot take tackle, no matter how big it is.

You will be able to overcome it over time and there are plenty of problems to follow around the world. But be true to yourself and always look for the team who is willing to follow you.

Q:  Last but not least, can you please give some advice to entrepreneurs who are on the mission of changing the world?

A: Changing the world is important and changing the world sometimes happens. But that is not the goal to start with. It is too big goal. It is too audacious and maybe even too arrogant to have this goal.

Martin Luther King did not have the goal of changing the world. He was just trying to change some laws so that black people could have equal rights. When Steve Jobs was starting Apple he wanted to do a music iPod. He was not trying to change the world. So I’m a little bit suspicious of your question because changing the world has come up multiple times.  Forget about changing the world. Do something meaningful for the people around you and your community. If you’re lucky enough it will have a big impact.  So think more practical and try to make local change. Stop worrying about changing the world – that will come later if you’re so lucky.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Peter Klein on Entrepreneurship, Economics and Education

2. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

3. F. M. Scherer on Industrial Economy, Digital Economy and Innovation

4. Diego Comin on Entrepreneurship, Technology and Global Economic Development

5. Stephen Walt on Global Development

6. Juliana Rotich on Social Entrepreneurial Innovation

Jeff Haden: Pursuing Excellence

Editor’s Note: Jeff Haden is a great business think tank, entrepreneur, speakers, ghostwriter and LinkedIn influencer.  He is a a true talent in the world of Ghostwriting. He is the founder of Blackbird Media. He has ghostwritten nearly forty non-fiction books (four Amazon Business & Investing #1s). He is a featured columnist for Inc.com and CBS MoneyWatch and a great speaker on subjects like: leadership, management, and small business for industry conferences, company meetings, civic groups, and the occasional workshop. In a nutshell, he is revolutionizing the Business Industry with his impressive ideas, thoughts, insights, experience and writings.

He didn’t have things the easy or the fast way, but he is certainly making some of the best written articles for self improvement and business. He’d tell you which ones, but then he’d have to kill you.

As he says:

‘Bottom line? I’m versatile, easy to work with, and I really like what I do. If we work together, you will too.’

You can read his full bio from here and get connected on Twitter and LinkedIn.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Jeff Haden recently to gain insights about pursuing excellence in career and life which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Jeff, thank you so much for joining us in the midst of your busy schedule. We are thrilled and honored to have you at eTalks.

Jeff: I am happy to join.

Niaz: At the beginning of our interview, can you please tell us a bit about your background? How have you become a ghostwriter from being a forklift driver?

Jeff: I worked my way through college by working full-time at a manufacturing plant. I liked being on the shop floor, liked being a part of making things… just really liked the production environment. When I graduated from college I interviewed for several jobs, but they were all “40 year-old men working in cubicles” type jobs, and I couldn’t see myself enjoying that. So I took an entry-level job at another manufacturing facility in town.

When I say entry-level, I mean entry-level. I started as a material handler, which literally meant lifting and carrying heavy boxes and bundles at a fast pace. Fortunately I worked my way up into other jobs: Forklift driver, crew leader, machine operator, supervisor, manager, etc.

But I’m really glad that’s how I started. I literally learned the business from the ground up, and I think it helps you be a better leader when you truly understand what the people you do go through on a daily basis.

Niaz: What is your motivation to motivate others?

Jeff: I worked for other people for twenty years (more if you count jobs in high school and college.) I worked my way up from the absolute bottom of the totem pole to running manufacturing operations for a book plant… and along the way made every mistake possible (I even ate my lunch during one inter-departmental job interview… but I swear there was a good reason!)

I know a ton about what not to do. I’m like the ultimate career cautionary tale. All I have to do is think back on one of many career-limiting moves… and an article writes itself. And hopefully other people can learn from my mistakes instead of having to go through the pain of making the same mistakes themselves.

Niaz: Career is probably most important thing of an individual’s life.  I have seen that you tend to do a lot of article on Inc. concerning career advice. What do you think about career? How significant is career for a person’s life?

Jeff: I know it’s a cliché, but most of us spend more time working than we do on any other single pursuit. While I don’t think what you do define you, it does define much of what you do, if that makes sense. So why spend your life doing something you don’t enjoy or that doesn’t fulfill you? I know we don’t always have choices and we can’t all love our work… but we should either try to find work we love, or find ways to love certain aspects of the work we do.

Niaz: In this knowledge economy, what’s new about career? How is career path is changing and what should one keep in mind while setting career plans in this knowledge economy?

Jeff: At one time I think you could get by with simply having experience. If you checked all the boxes and had the right qualifications, you were fine. Now I think it’s much more about what you do and what you do with what you know. (That’s how I define the knowledge economy.) Accomplishments are everything – and accomplishments are based on having and applying knowledge that others do not have.

One way is to specialize. You may not be given the latitude to focus on one tiny aspect of a job or an industry, but you should pick one thing that you can know and do better than anyone around you – that way you’re always valuable and you’re as close to being indispensable as possible.

Of course the key is to pick one thing that truly adds value. Don’t just pick what you like – pick what truly makes a difference and creates real value.

Niaz: As you know, everything has been changing with the changes of time. Our past generations used to have only one career for their whole life. Now we have so many career paths as well as have so many opportunities. We are doing multiple things at a time. What do you think about the best ways of choosing multiple careers?

Jeff: I like to think in terms of layers: What am I doing today, how can I leverage that tomorrow, and how does that extend to other possibilities? For example, I write. Writing is based on knowledge and expertise about a subject, so that can easily extend to speaking. Or consulting, or meeting people you can partner with to take on new challenges.

Think about what you do today and then think about how you can leverage it. If you’re a technician, think about ways you can add leadership skills to your toolbox. Or think about how you can work with other departments on projects that are worthwhile for both functional areas. Or think about how you can learn new skills at a part-time job. As long as you’re constantly seeking opportunities and staying open to opportunities that are presented to you, your career path will almost discover itself.

Niaz: How to grab the best opportunities among so many good opportunities? And how can one integrate multiple careers to keep smooth sustainability and growth in career?

Jeff: The key is to always, always, always excel in your current job. Everything follows from that. Growth is based on accomplishment. If you’ve held three jobs in a relatively short period of time and have excelled at all of them, a hiring manager will see that as a great sign. Talent often gets to set its own rules. When you excel, the sky is the limit.

When you’re mediocre, limits are everywhere.

As for best opportunities: Sometimes the best opportunities only reveal themselves later. Make an informed choice and then decide that if the job doesn’t turn out like you hoped that you will do everything possible to make it work. Don’t expect the company or the boss to change – take responsibility for doing your best regardless of the circumstances. Your performance is the only thing you can truly control.

Niaz:  Where and how can one get continuous motivation to do things to reach to the mission of life?

Jeff: Success in business and in life means different things to different people. Success should mean different things. Whether or not you are successful depends on how you define success, and on the tradeoffs you are willing to not just accept but embrace as you pursue that definition of success.

The answer lies in answering one question: How happy am I? That’s it. How successful you are is based solely on the answer to that question.

Tradeoffs are unavoidable. If you’re making tons of money but are still unhappy, you haven’t embraced the fact that incredible business success often carries a heavy personal price. Other things are clearly more important than making money, and that’s okay. If on the other hand you leave every day at 4 o’clock and pursue a rich and varied personal life and you’re still unhappy, you haven’t embraced the fact–and it is a fact–that what you chose to do will not make you wealthy. Personal satisfaction is nice but it’s not enough for you… and that’s okay too.

What motivates you? What do you want to achieve for yourself and your family? What do you value most, spiritually, emotionally, and materially? That’s what will make you happy–and if you aren’t doing it, you won’t be happy.

Defining success is important, but taking a clear-eyed look at the impact of your definition matters even more. As in most things, your intention is important, but the results provide the real answer.

Ask yourself if you’re happy. If you are, you’re successful. The happier you are, the more successful you are.

And if you aren’t happy, it’s time to make some changes.

Niaz:  After interviewing thousands of people for a wide range of positions, what do you think are the most practical ways to pursue excellence in career?

Jeff: Experience is irrelevant. Accomplishments are everything.

You have “10 years in the Web design business.” Whoopee. I don’t care how long you’ve been doing what you do. Years of service indicate nothing; you could be the worst 10-year programmer in the world.

I care about what you’ve done: how many sites you’ve created, how many back-end systems you’ve installed, how many customer-specific applications you’ve developed (and what kind)… all that matters is what you’ve done.

Successful people don’t need to describe themselves using hyperbolic adjectives like passionate, innovative, driven, etc. They can just describe what they’ve done.

Niaz:  ‘Self-branding’ seems to be the buzzword with career coaches today. How do you define ‘Self-branding’?

Jeff: A great personal brand isn’t artificial. It’s authentic. A great personal brand is analogous to a great reputation, which is based on providing exceptional service or doing an exceptional job.

Obviously, that’s often not manifested in popular culture; if you hear “personal brand” and Paris Hilton is the first thing that comes to mind, you might see “personal brand” as a pejorative. But personal branding doesn’t mean duping someone. It doesn’t mean you’re manipulative or self-aggrandizing.

What it means is you are incredibly efficient at getting across to you people who you are and what you stand for.

Niaz:  LinkedIn continues to be a powerhouse in terms of networking professionally, yet many people are using it wrong way. What mistakes are you seeing professionals and job seekers are making?

Jeff: The worst thing you can do is put off making solid connections until the day you need something–customers, employees, a job, or just a better network. If you do, then you’ve waited too long.

Think about where you someday want to be and start now to build the connections, the network, and the following that will support those goals. Building great connections is a parallel, not a serial, task. Later is always too late.

Niaz:  With the evolution of social media and incredibly easy access to web, most of us have multiple social media account. Being present on social media means investing time. And we are investing significant amount of time over social media. What are your ideas to set our social media plans to get best out of it?

Jeff: Don’t just be on social media because you think you should. Social media is just a tool. First figure out what you want to accomplish, then pick the right tools to get you there. If you want to make professional connections, LinkedIn can be a great tool. If you want to find old girlfriends, Facebook is the place. Have a clear idea of what you want to do, then use the right tool… and constantly measure what you’re doing to make sure it’s working – or worth the investment in time.

Niaz:  What are your secrets of your success?

Jeff: I’m not that smart, not that talented, not that gifted… but I can do what other people are not willing to do.

Everyone says they go the extra mile. Almost no one actually does. Most people who go a little farther or longer think, “Wait… no one else is here… why am I doing this?”

That’s why the extra mile is such a lonely place. That’s also why the extra mile is a place filled with opportunities.

Be early. Stay late. Make the extra phone call. Send the extra email. Do the extra research. Help a customer unload or unpack a shipment. Don’t wait to be asked; offer. Don’t just tell employees what to do–show them what to do and work beside them.

Every time you do something, think of one extra thing you can do–especially if other people aren’t doing that one thing.

Sure, it’s hard.

But that’s what will make you different.

And over time, that’s what will make you incredibly successful.

Niaz:  Jeff thank you once again for sharing us your invaluable ideas, knowledge, insights and experiences. We are wishing you very good luck for all of your upcoming endeavors.

Jeff: You’re welcome Niaz.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

01. Philip Kotler on Marketing for Better World

02. Hugh Mac­Leod on Creativity and Art

03. Daniel Pink on To Sell is Human

04. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

05. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

06. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

07. Rita McGrath on Strategy in Volatile and Uncertain Environments

08. Gautam Mukunda on Leadership

Gerd Leonhard: Big Data and the Future of Media

Editor’s Note: Gerd Leonhard is a well-known Futurist and Author of 5 books, a highly influential Keynote Speaker, Think-Tank Leader & Adviser, and – since late 2011 – the Founder of GreenFuturists.com. Wall Street Journal called him ‘one of the leading Media Futurists in the World’. He is well-known as the Co-author of the influential book ‘The Future of Music’ (Berklee Press, 2005), and as the author of ‘The End of Control’ (2007), ‘Music 2.0’ (2008), ‘Friction is Fiction’ (2009, Lulu Publishing), and ‘The Future of Content’ (Kindle-only, 2011). His new book is “From Ego to Eco”.

Gerd is a fellow of the Royal Society for the Arts (London), a member of the World Future Society, and a visiting professor at the Fundação Dom Cabral in Brazil. A native German, he now resides in Basel, Switzerland.

You can read his bio and learn more about his works from here, here, here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Gerd Leonhard recently to gain his ideas and insights about  Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Leonhard thanks for joining us in the midst of your busy schedule. We are honored and thrilled to have you at eTalks.

Gerd: My pleasure.

Niaz: At the beginning of our interview, can you please tell us about Big Data? How is Big Data revolutionizing our life and work?

Gerd: I define Big Data as the result of exponentially increasing velocity, variety, volume, virality and value.  All of us are generating increasingly large amounts of data, whether it’s by using Google, or sharing a location, rating a site, tweeting, facebooking, photo uploading etc. – and this is primarily driven by the Social-Local-Mobile SoLoMo revolution on the Internet. Once this data can be harnessed – and safeguarded i.e. refined and permitted – it will allow for substantial cost savings (such as with networked public cars, logistics, p2p energy etc.) as well as for pretty dramatic new values such as prediction and anticipation offerings like Google Now and Siri.

Niaz: Why does Big Data excite you most?

Gerd: The possibility of generating real user value from the raw data, i.e. faster understanding of complex issues, realtime, customized news and content feeds, and an overall dramatically improved digital content experiences.  The downside – as we have just recently discovered see my post on this, that we may all become permanently naked and subject to whatever data obsession governments may follow.

Niaz: What do you think about Big Data Products?

Gerd: They are more like services, platforms and experiences then they are products — but we are still very nascent with this; kind of like the beginning of Search, 10 or so years ago.  Every major technology company, every internet portal and every media company is now diving into Big Data as the next big thing – and this connects to Social Media of course, and to The Internet of Things (IoT)

Niaz: How the futures of products (Big Data Products) are going to be changed?

Gerd:  Big Data, unlike Big Oil, will be all about ecosystems, about creating win-win-win solutions, about interdependence and mutual respect i.e. permission and trust. Unless we have that worked out, it will fail.

Niaz:  As you know, Big Data has started revolutionizing almost everything. Marketing is changing significantly. Can you please tell us about the impact of Big Data in Marketing?

Gerd: Basically, IF users allow marketers to track them i.e. if there is a ‘like’ relationship, than big data feeds are a goldmine for marketers – everything will be 99% track able, customized and personalized.  Again, IF value is there for the users, this is dream come true for marketers. The main focus will be on securing and maintaining TRUST – which is why the PRISM debacle is such an issue

Niaz: What do you think about the future of Marketing?

Gerd: We wont need Marketing as we know it. It will all be about sense-making, curation, experiences, added values, timeliness and conversations (see my HBR piece)

Niaz: If you go for buying foods, soda or any house hold things you will have so many good alternatives. Considering broader area, if you go for buying smart phone, computers or even cars, you will have so many good alternatives too. But living in such an exciting era, we just have only one good search engine, only one good micro blogging site, only one good social network and only one good professional network. Are we going through any crisis?

Gerd: I think we have a multitude of platforms and services – innovation is moving much too fast!

Niaz: How can we recover this crisis? What is the future of this trend?

Gerd: The only way forward is to create some kind of ‘sustainable capitalism’ based on hyper-collaboration and new, interdependent ecosystems of money, media, energy, food and data (See ego to eco).

Niaz: As you know, as long as we are watching adds on social media or web, we are no longer human beings, we become products. Social media companies are making billions of dollars but they are not making their consumers wealthy and not even enriching the life of consumers. What are the core problems of our social media?

Gerd: As the saying goes: if you don’t pay you ARE the product. This is not per se a problem – unless we lose control of our bargains. Too much too fast too deep can become a real problem for the human brain, as well, so… deteching will increase as well.

Niaz: How do you see the world of social media evolving over the next 10 years?

Gerd: All the web is social, mobile, local – there will be no difference in online and offline in less than 7 years, and the same goes for ‘social’.

Niaz: By this time, Google has become very gigantic. It controls almost all information available on the Internet. It shows us that information it wants to. So many people have already started to believe that Google is going to control the whole world. We have also seen Google to use its monopoly power. Google’s search algorithms “decide” what is relevant and valuable. What do you think about Google’s monopoly? What could be better for the whole world?

Gerd: If Google behaves like a monolith and stops earning our trust it will die very quickly as we will feel be betrayed – this is why WE control these big web companies, in the end.

Niaz: Can you please tell us about real-time approach?

Gerd: Everything is going real-time because of mobile internet, cameras, social media, big data — in many ways a torrent of noise, in other ways a treasure trove. We will need better filters and curators.

Niaz: What are the impacts of real-time approach in everything we do now?

Gerd: Basically if it’s not realtime we won’t care.

Niaz: Dear Gerd, we are really grateful for giving us time and sharing us priceless ideas, insights and experience for eTalks community. We are wishing you very good luck for all of your upcoming endeavors.

Gerd: Thank you Niaz.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger on Big Data Revolution

2. James Allworth on Disruptive Innovation

3. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

4. Brian Keegan on Big Data

5. danah boyd on Future of Technology and Social Media

6. Irving Wladawsky-Berger on Evolution of Technology and Innovation

7. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

F. M. Scherer: Industrial Economy, Digital Economy and Innovation

Editor’s Note: F. M. Scherer is Aetna Professor Emeritus in the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Born in 1932, he received an A.B. degree with honors and distinction from the University of Michigan in 1954; an M.B.A. with high distinction from Harvard University in 1958; and a Ph.D. in business economics from Harvard University in 1963.

From 1974 to 1976, he was chief economist at the Federal Trade Commission. His research specialties are industrial economics and the economics of technological change, leading inter alia to books on Patents: Economics, Policy and Measurement; Industrial Market Structure and Economic Performance (third edition with David Ross); New Perspectives on Economic Growth and Technological Innovation; The Economics of Multi-Plant Operation: An International Comparisons Study(with three coauthors); International High-Technology Competition; Competition Policies for an Integrated World Economy; Mergers, Sell-offs, and Economic Efficiency (with David J. Ravenscraft) and Innovation and Growth: Schumpeterian Perspectives.

You can read his full bio from here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed F. M. Scherer recently to gain insights about Industrial Economy, Digital Economy and Innovation which is given below.

Niaz: You are an expert in Industrial Economics.  At the beginning of our interview, can you please tell us about Industrial Economics?

Scherer: “Industrial economics,” the name commonly applied in Europe, is also called “industrial organization” in the United States.   It is primarily concerned with studying the functioning and malfunctioning of real-world markets, using an array of methods – theory, econometrics, and history.  It also has substantial policy implications, for example, encompassing all varieties of regulatory policy and antitrust policy (called in Europe competition policy).

 Niaz: How is industrial economics different from our traditional economics?

Scherer: The main differences are a strong real-world orientation and a focus on individual industries or markets rather than generalized markets or the overall macro economy.

Niaz: As you know, the economy is transforming to a digital economy.  What revolutionary changes have occurred in this era of digital economy?

Scherer: Virtually every era experiences changes that might at the time be viewed as revolutionary.  The digital economy is not really different.  I suspect most readers know the main elements: the enormously increased capacity and reduced cost of digital devices following Moore’s Law; the evolution of much more capacious means of transmitting information from one place to another – notably, optical fiber cables; and the application of information theory to compress more information into a given transmission medium, either cable or over-the-air.  Building upon these fundamental changes are a host of specific applications, ranging from smaller and more powerful computers to smart phones to the use of computers and robots in automation.

Niaz: What are the impacts of industrial economics in our digital economy?

Scherer: The field of industrial economics has evolved to track and understand the economic implications of the changes mentioned earlier.   We’ve done a lot, for example, to measure the economics of learning curves, which are one facet of Moore’s Law.  Perhaps our most important contribution has been a rethinking of the proper framework for, and means of, regulating specific industries, including telecommunications.  Regulatory reform in telecoms helped open the way for optical fiber cable networks and reassignment of the ether’s frequency space to new modes of information transfer.

Niaz: Can you please tell us about the future of the digital economy?

Scherer: Economists don’t have a particularly good reputation for predicting the future, try as we may.  It’s quite clear, e.g. from studies by economists such as Erik Brynjolfsson of MIT, that more powerful computer systems are helping to raise industrial productivity, as non-digital innovations have been doing for at least two centuries.  Among other things, computerized systems have improved inventory control and logistics in industries such as retailing.  Wal-Mart has been a prominent example here.  But the phenomenon is not really new.  In the 1960s, for example, Anheuser-Busch applied computer-based operations research to optimize its plant structure and shipping patterns, becoming in the process the nation’s largest and most efficient brewer.  And my own experience as a scholar using computers for quantitative data analysis suggests that the changes have been less than revolutionary.  I was able to analyze some rather large data sets successfully in the 1960s using computers that were by today’s standards primitive, but the analysis went through nevertheless.  Long processing queues meant foregoing instant gratification, but the gratification was all the greater for the waiting.  True, today one can access richer data bases – e.g., data on millions of health care interventions, complete retail product transaction tape records, and the whole historical set of U.S. patent grants – that would have been impossible in 1965.

The digital revolution affects not only industrial productivity, but also diverse consumer activities, including communication patterns and entertainment methods.  Here I’m much less confident about the consequences.  Surveys show prodigious numbers of hours spent in the average week, especially by younger people, on computer games and social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Many individuals’ use appears from my observation to border on addiction.  (Disclosure: I seek an e-mail fix several times daily.) I suppose people get a lot of pleasure, some narcissistic, from social networking, but I’m much less sure that we are becoming better or more productive human beings as a result.

Education is likely to be affected with special force through the growth of massive open online courses (MOOC).  I’m personally thankful that I’m exiting from teaching just in time, for I know nothing more alienating than talking to an anonymous video camera.

Niaz: There is a tremendous problem of digital divide in under developed, developing, and poor countries.  What are the core challenges for those countries to embrace the blessings of digital economy?

Scherer: Yes, there is such a digital divide, just as there is a less immense digital divide between the United States and nations such as South Korea, Japan and Belgium with faster and more extensive internet connections.  The good news is that cell phone technology is diffusing rapidly into many relatively poor nations, permitting richer intercommunication generally and better information, e.g., on future weather events and market prices, which farmers can use in their planting, harvesting and crop shipping decisions.  From the base that has been established, there will be growth into more advanced generations of digital phone capabilities.  Important to this future progress is the construction of additional cells and high-capacity optical fiber cables to interlink them.  Cheap computers are also becoming available to students in less-developed nations, giving them richer access to the world’s information resources and enhancing their educational progress and, among other things, introducing them to writing software.  These things take time and money.  Both are in short supply, but progress will occur, perhaps faster than I suppose.

Niaz: So what are the new perspectives on economic growth and technological innovation?

Scherer: I suspect the wording of your question implies the identical wording of a short book I published in 1999.  My answer incorporates some of the pessimism I expressed in that book.  The world’s most advanced nations have experienced truly extraordinary technological progress and productivity growth during the past two centuries.  Some nations once viewed as less developed, such as China, are joining in, taking advantage of what has been learned elsewhere to advance at even more rapid rates.  But in the most advanced nations, growth rates have been ebbing, and nations like China and other later developers will experience diminished growth rates once they have extensively installed imitative  capital goods and must then innovate to advance further – a phenomenon called convergence.   The key question is, what can we sustain?  My own view is that environmental constraints, even if not raw resource constraints, will make future growth more difficult than it has been in the past.  But I confess I could be wrong, as other skeptics have been in the past, and indeed, I hope I am wrong.  I also worry about the increasingly unequal distribution of income and wealth that has occurred over the past four decades as skill requirements, patterns of international trade, and modes of competition have changed.

Niaz: Can you please tell us about your book, ‘Innovation and Growth: Schumpeterian Perspectives’?

Scherer: That was a collection of articles, mostly previously published, issued by the MIT Press in 1984.  It pretty well reflected what I had accomplished during the first two decades of my professional career, at least in the field of technological innovation.  Its main emphases were identifying salient characteristics of how innovation occurs and works its magic on the economy, how market structures affect incentives for investing in innovation, and  how innovation shortfalls contributed to the productivity growth rate slump experienced by the United States beginning in the early 1970s and continuing up to the time the book was published.  (Growth did pick up, at least temporarily, in the 1990s.)  These were, I believe, some of my best contributions.

Niaz: What are the new scopes and opportunities of innovation and growth?

Scherer: As I said before, predicting what will happen is difficult.  In the 1984 Innovation and Growth book, I included one 1978 article with my characterization of technologies that were still evolving rapidly.  My list of potential breakthrough areas included molecularly engineered pharmaceuticals, hormonal insecticides, asexual plant reproduction, optical fiber message transmission, and energy from thermonuclear fusion.  Making allowance for developments that emerged in somewhat different forms than I visualized, I was pretty much right on the first four.  I missed badly on the nuclear fusion score, which people had been cultivating intensively beginning in the 1960s and are still pushing without evident success.   Earlier in the list, I also erred seriously in classifying digital computers as “approaching maturity.”  I completely missed the PC revolution!  The big continuing breakthrough areas, as I look to the future, are further developments in human and plant gene sequencing and splicing, among other things revolutionizing some aspects of health care, and of course, continuation of the information revolution.

Niaz: Do you think we have already solved all of our interesting problems with technology and innovation?  If not, what are your suggestions to come up with big ideas and solve big problems?

Scherer: Clearly, we have not solved all the interesting problems.  The previous answer listed two of my breakthrough candidates.  The biggest yet-unsolved problem in my view is learning how to use energy in ways that will allow the world’s huge and increasing population to prosper without precipitating disastrous climate change.   Seeding the atmosphere with sunlight-deflecting substances is one possible solution, but it is unproven and poses significant risks of getting the balance wrong.  How do we come up with the big ideas?   The essential facet in my view is continuing support of first-rate basic scientific research across a wide diversity of fields.  Chairman Mao was right in urging that we allow 100 flowers to bloom, because we can’t accurately pre-select which ones will thrive best.

Niaz: What is the economics of technological change?

Scherer: It’s a sub-specialty in several fields of economics concerned with the issues I have alluded to earlier.  I’ve been working in the area for more than five decades.  In the 1950s and 1960s, there were only a handful of us.  We were the “happy few … the band of brothers” in Henry V’s soliloquy.   Now there are hundreds of us working in the vineyards.

Niaz: My readers will love to know about your new book, ‘Quarter Notes and Bank Notes: The Economics of Music Composition in the 18th and 19th Centuries’.  Can you briefly tell us about it?

Scherer: It unites two dominant interests in my life: classical music and the study of innovation.  It uses among other things a statistical sample to reveal how 646 composers kept body and soul together in pursuing their chosen profession or avocation.  Among other things, it investigates composers’ education, their motives, their employment modes and entrepreneurship, their remarkable geographic mobility, and how they were affected by the spread of music publication and the emergence of copyright law.

Niaz: Last but not least, can you please leave us some points, ideas and advice to build a strong economy in this era of digitalization?

Scherer: You left the hardest question until last.  Education is of course critical.  We’ve come a long way, but there is very much more to be done, especially in the less affluent nations.  And even in the United States, our results leave lots of room for improvement. Among things, we need to provide higher status and pay for primary and secondary school teachers.  For economic strength, we also must reverse the increasing inequality of income distribution.  If the majority of our citizens don’t share the gains from our economic growth, it will be difficult to sustain continuing advances in broad-based consumption technologies.  And discontent is likely to manifest itself politically in ways that could destabilize the economy.   And finally, we need to avert disasters such as rising sea levels and adverse crop-growing conditions likely to be associated with global warming and to keep the nuclear genie in the bottle.  I grew up under the ominous shadow of nuclear disaster.  We had some frightfully close calls.  We’ve been fortunate thus far to avoid that fate, but the danger continues, and we need to keep it in check.

Niaz: Dear Scherer, I am thanking so much for finding time, sharing invaluable ideas and educating us with impressive thoughts in the midst of your busy schedule. I am wishing you very good luck for your good health as well as for all of your upcoming endeavors.

Scherer: I am happy to contribute.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Peter Klein on Entrepreneurship, Economics and Education

2. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

3. Robert Stavins on Environmental Economics

4. Diego Comin on Entrepreneurship, Technology and Global Economic Development

5. Stephen Walt on Global Development

6. Juliana Rotich on Social Entrepreneurial Innovation

7. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

Robert Stavins: Environmental Economics

Editor’s Note: Robert Stavins is the Albert Pratt Professor of Business and Government, Director of the Harvard Environmental Economics Program, Chairman of the Environment and Natural Resources Faculty Group at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and Director of Graduate Studies for the Doctoral Program in Public Policy and the Doctoral Program in Political Economy and Government, and Co-Chair of the  Harvard Business School-Kennedy School Joint Degree Programs, and Director of the Harvard Project on Climate Agreements.

To read his full bio, please visit here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Robert Stavins recently to gain insights about Environmental Economics which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Robert, thank you so much for joining us in the midst of your busy schedule. We are so honored to have you at eTalks.

R. Stavins: Thanks for having me Niaz.

Niaz: You are one of the most influential voices in environmental economics and the field of environmental economics is more important than ever.  At the beginning of our interview, can you please tell us about environmental economics?

R. Stavins: In a market economy – the form of economic system that is now found in nearly all countries of the world – the cause of environmental problems are fundamentally economic, namely the fact that environmental pollution is an externality, a negative, unintended consequence of economic activity, whether carried out by individuals or firms.  In addition, the consequences of environmental problems have important economic dimensions.  For these two reasons, economics and economic analysis provide an exceptionally useful lens through which to examine environmental problems, so that they are fully understood, and so that as a result public policies can be designed which are environmentally effective, economically sensible, and therefore more likely to be politically pragmatic.

Over the past two decades, environmental economics has evolved from what was once a relatively obscure application of welfare economics to a prominent field of economics in its own right.  The number of articles on the natural environment appearing in mainstream economics periodicals has continued to increase, as has the number of economics journals dedicated exclusively to environmental and resource topics.  Likewise, the influence of environmental economics on public policy has increased significantly, particularly as greater use has been made of market-based instruments for environmental protection.

Niaz: Do you think environmental economics is conflicting with capitalism or market economy? Why or why not?

R. Stavins: At first blush, many people think of the phrase “environmental economics” as oxymoronic – an internal contradiction – since it’s either the economy or the environment.  Although there are typically trade-offs between environmental protection and narrowly-defined economic well-being (i.e., financial well-being), for the reasons I stated above, environmental economics is not an internal contradiction, but rather an effective discipline with which to study the performance of proposed and implemented environmental policies.

Niaz: What are the distinctive perspectives of environmental economics that make it the next big thing for entrepreneurs, innovators, economists as well as researchers?

R. Stavins: Given the threat of global climate change, which will bring seriously economic damages when it occurs and which will require significant economic sacrifices to mitigate, an environmental economic perspective is increasingly important for a broad range of sectors in private industry.

Niaz: Dear Robert thanks again for finding time in the midst of your busy schedule.

R. Stavins: You’re welcome Niaz.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Peter Klein on Entrepreneurship, Economics and Education

2. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

3. F. M. Scherer on Industrial Economy, Digital Economy and Innovation

4. Diego Comin on Entrepreneurship, Technology and Global Economic Development

5. Stephen Walt on Global Development

6. Juliana Rotich on Social Entrepreneurial Innovation

7. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

Daniel Pink: To Sell is Human

Editor’s Note: Daniel Pink is the author of five provocative books– including the long-running New York Times bestsellers, A Whole New Mindand Drive.His latest book, To Sell is Human, is a #1 New York Times business bestseller, a #1 Wall Street Journal business bestseller, and a #1 Washington Post nonfiction bestseller. Dan’s books have been translated into 34 languages. His articles on business and technology appear in many publications, including the New York Times, Harvard Business Review, Fast Company, Wired, and The Sunday Telegraph (See a sample of articles here).

His TED Talk ‘The puzzle of motivation‘ has almost 6 millions views and RSA Animate Talk ‘The surprising truth about what motivates us‘ has more than 10 millions views. Dan has provided analysis of business trends on CNN, CNBC, ABC, NPR, and other networks in the U.S. and abroad. And he lectures to corporations, associations, and universities around the world on economic transformation and the new workplace.

In 2011, Thinkers50 ranked him one of the 50 most influential business thinkers in the world. To read his full bio, please click here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Daniel Pink recently to gain insights about Conceptual Age, To Sell is Human, Art and Design which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Dan, thank you so much for joining us. We are very honored to have you at eTalks.

Dan Pink: My pleasure.

Niaz: As you know, we have been living through the agricultural, industrial, and information ages. According to you, we are now living in a conceptual age. At the beginning of our interview, can you please tell us about ‘Conceptual Age’?

Dan Pink: We are leaving the Information Age — an economy and a society built on logical, linear, computer-like capabilities — and entering an economy and a society build on inventive, empathic, big-picture capabilities — the Conceptual Age. The defining skills of the Information Age — what I call “left brain” capabilities — are still necessary, but to them we need to add “right brain” aptitudes and qualities. In A WHOLE NEW MIND, I identify six essential aptitudes for the new age: Design, Story, Symphony, Empathy, Play, and Meaning.

Niaz: You say, in today’s world, we are all sales people. Your most recent book ‘To Sell is Human’ has become New York Times, Wall Street Journal’s and Washington Posts’ Best Seller. We must comprehend now, whoever we are, whatever we do and wherever we belong, we do sell. Why do you believe ‘To sell is Human’?

To Sell Is Humna

Dan Pink: Like it or not, we’re all in sales now — whether we have sales in our job title or not. But sales isn’t what it used to be. We’ve moved from a world of information asymmetry (sellers have lots more information than buyers) to one of information parity (sellers and buyers are more evenly matched). And that has nudged us from a world of “buyer beware” to one of “seller beware.” Selling effectively — whether it’s your idea or your product or yourself– in a world of seller beware depends on three key qualities: Attunement (taking another’s perspective); Buoyancy (staying afloat in an ocean of rejection); and Clarity (moving from accessing information to curating it and from solving existing problems to identifying new problems.) I talk about these qualities keeping in mind the skills you need to become more effective at selling, but in the end I hope that what this book shows is that selling is more important, more urgent, and more beautiful than we realize. The capacity to sell isn’t some unnatural adaptation to the merciless world of commerce. It’s part of who we are.

Niaz: You’ve said that abundance changes the way we see material goods. We no longer just want to have things; we want cool things. We want well-designed things. We want things with a meaning. On the other hand, you’ve also said that the new master of business administration is the master of fine arts. Why do you think art and design are the next big things?

Dan Pink: We live in a world of such abundance and prosperity that, for businesses, it’s no longer enough to make a product that’s reasonably priced and adequately functional. It must also be beautiful, unique, and meaningful. Design – the marriage of utility and significance – has become an essential aptitude for personal fulfillment and professional success in the Conceptual Age.

Niaz: As you know, so many of us now want to contribute amazing things to make this world a better place. We also see people want to change the world to make it a bit more special. In reality, it is so tough to change the world. But having a wish to change the world is really appreciating and great. Can you please tell us about the top most problems of this planet which has to be considered greatly to make this world a better place?

Dan Pink: The general story of humankind is a slow (and often unsteady) march toward progress. If you look back from today, things are much better for most people than they were 100 years ago, let alone 500 years ago. That’s not to say we don’t have contemporary challenges. Here in the U.S., I’d put two issues at the top:

1. Our economy is increasingly leaving a slice of our population behind, marooning them without meaningful work or a sense of hope;

2. Our government, particularly at the federal level, is close to dysfunctional.

On a world level, I’d put at the top of the list two more issues:

1. Global warming and the fact that we’re not fully ready for its consequences;

2. The fact that while you and I are conversing via email, more than a billion people still live in poverty.

In general, though, I’m optimistic that we’ll slowly resolve these challenges — because, as I said earlier, that’s been the trajectory over time.

Niaz: Dan, thanks again for giving us time in the midst of your busy schedule and sharing us your invaluable ideas.

Dan Pink: You’re welcome Niaz.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

01. Philip Kotler on Marketing for Better World

02. Hugh Mac­Leod on Creativity and Art

03. Philip Delves Broughton on What they teach you at Harvard?

04. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

05. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

06. Jeff Haden on Pursuing Excellence

07. Rita McGrath on Strategy in Volatile and Uncertain Environments

08. Gautam Mukunda on Leadership

09. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

danah boyd: Future of Technology and Social Media

Editor’s Note: danah boyd is a Senior Researcher at Microsoft Research, a Research Assistant Professor in Media, Culture, and Communication at New York University, a Visiting Researcher at Harvard Law School, a Fellow at Harvard’s Berkman Center, and an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of New South Wales.

To read her full bio, please click here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed danah boyd recently to gain her ideas and insights on Future of Technology and Social Media which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Danah, thank you so much for giving us some time in the midst of your busy schedule.

Danah: You’re welcome Niaz.

Niaz: As you know, we have already passed two decades of Internet bubble burst. By this time, we have got Google, Amazon, Facebook, LinkedIn, Apple and some other great companies. At the same time, our economy is transforming into digital economy. What are the revolutionary changes going to be occurred in the upcoming decades?

Danah: Decades? I think that the most interesting technological transformations are going to come from bioinformatics and the health sector.  I think that we’re at the earliest stage of this process, but I’m looking forward to see where it goes.

Niaz: What do you think about the future of Internet and social media?

Danah: In terms of social media, I think we’re in a lull of innovation.  This always happens when too many people are focused on a particular arena.  The focus is on perfecting, consolidating, and small iterations. I don’t think it’s possible to say what’s coming around the corner that’s a true breakthrough.  If I knew, I’d be helping build it. <grin>

Niaz: How do you define ‘Big Data’? What does excite you most about ‘Big Data’?

Danah: If you haven’t read this, you should  read ‘Critical Questions for Big Data‘.

Kate and I define “Big Data” as a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon that rests on the interplay of technology, analysis, and mythology.  The latter is the most important here.  As a phenomenon, “Big Data” has nothing to do with bigness, but everything to do with the belief that lots of data and math can solve all of the world’s problems.

I’m excited to see more people engaging with math and data, but I think it’s critical that folks never forget that interpretation requires more than math.  It’s in the interpretation that knowledge – and biases – lie.

Niaz: Thanks again for joining us. We hope to get you again for a detailed interview.

Danah: You are welcome. Sure, we will sit another time.

Ending Note: danah boyd is currently very busy with her on going projects and research works. She got a little time to talk to us.

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Further Reading:

1. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger on Big Data Revolution

2. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

3. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

4. Brian Keegan on Big Data

5. Aubrey de Grey on Aging and Overcoming Death

6. Irving Wladawsky-Berger on Evolution of Technology and Innovation

7. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

8. James Allworth on Disruptive Innovation

9. James Kobielus on Big Data, Cognitive Computing and Future of Product

Stephen Walt: Global Development

Editor’s Note: Stephen Walt is the Robert and Renee Belfer Professor of International Affairs at Harvard Kennedy School. He has been a Resident Associate of the Carnegie Endowment for Peace and a Guest Scholar at the Brookings Institution, and he has also served as a consultant for the Institute of Defense Analyses, the Center for Naval Analyses, and the National Defense University.

Professor Walt is the author of The Origins of Alliances (1987), which received the 1988 Edgar S. Furniss National Security Book Award. He is also the author of Revolution and War (1996), Taming American Power: The Global Response to U.S. Primacy (2005), and, with co-author J.J. Mearsheimer, The Israel Lobby (2007).

You can read his full bio from herehere and here. For reading his blog on international relation, foreign policy and global affairs please click here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Stephen Walt recently to gain insights about his ideas, research and works in the field of Global Development which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Stephen, thank you so much for joining us. We are honored and thrilled to have you at eTalks.

Stephen: My pleasure.

Niaz: You are a realist in an ideological age. You have been a leader in the field of International Affairs. You have done a significant amount of research and added gigantic amount of knowledge in this field.

As you know, by this time, we have developed superb technologies, published millions of great books and developed a lot as human beings. At the beginning of our interview, can you please tell us, how far have we progressed?

Stephen: From one perspective, human progress is remarkable. In the past 500 years, we have identified many of the basic laws of the physical universe, discovered the principles of evolution and genetic inheritance, eliminated many diseases, and lifted millions of people out of poverty.  And along the way humans have created a vast and diverse array of music, literature, and art. Yet these same creative impulses have also been used to create powerful technologies of destruction and various harmful ideologies. Human progress remains a decidedly uneven phenomenon.

Niaz: What are the lacking, scope and opportunity to progress?

Stephen: By developing language, humans became able to record and communicate their discoveries and to work together to create new realities and possibilities. That capacity remains the greatest source of human potential: our collective ability to work together to achieve common ends.

Niaz: Despite all of the progresses we have, why countries keep fighting each other?

Stephen: At the most basic level, conflict between nations arises from a combination of fear, greed, and stupidity. Humans are social beings, and we are hard-wired to establish group identities and loyalties. Once formed, social groups tend to worry about what other groups may do to them, and this basic insecurity drives competition that sometimes leads to war. That’s fear.  States also fight because individual leaders have dreams of glory, or because they seek wealth through conquest and plunder. That’s greed. And finally, wars occur because leaders are fallible; they often misperceive or miscalculate. In particular, they convince themselves that victory will be swift and easy and then discover too late they were mistaken. That’s stupidity. Unfortunately, humankind remains all too prone to all three tendencies.

Niaz: Why do countries fail to build and sustain international relations? Can you please explain us the reasons? 

Stephen: In fact, countries form all sorts of valuable international connections. Global trade and investment has grown steadily, allowing millions to live more comfortably. Previously war-torn regions such as Europe have now known decades of peace. Information now flows all around the world at very low cost. Global institutions like the World Trade Organization or the United Nations have not eliminated global conflict, but they have helped keep international rivalries within bounds.

Yet there are still limits to what global institutions can accomplish. In particular, they cannot keep the most powerful countries from acting as they wish and from competing with each other for advantage. Nor can prevent some individuals and groups from using violence to advance their own political agendas.

Niaz: What do you think about the core problems of building sustainable international relations?

Stephen: I believe the core problem for the next century will be managing the development and rising power of Asia, and grappling with the political and social effects of environmental change. These two challenges will make many of our current concerns seem trivial by comparison.

Niaz: How can countries overcome those challenges?

Stephen: I believe the key to more effective global cooperation lies primarily in encouraging more honest and open global discourse. When countries are guided by myths, self-serving national narratives, and inaccurate information about political and natural phenomena, then clashes and errors are inevitable. By contrast, when humans are able to confront shared problems honestly and openly, they can identify where they disagree and are more likely to develop solutions that work. But it is still a fragile process.

Niaz: Is there any net gain from wars?

Stephen: In some cases, yes. States are sometimes able to improve their position via warfare, or at least can prevent others from gaining an advantage. But “rolling the iron dice of war” is always risky, because no one can be 100 percent sure how things will turn out. For example, it was clear in 2002 that the United States would not have much trouble defeating Saddam Hussein’s army, but the occupation of Iraq quickly turned into a costly quagmire and the final result is far from what the Bush administration intended. Because warfare is always an uncertain enterprise, wise leaders will go to war only when forced to fight.

Niaz: Can you imagine a world without any war? If yes! How can we build that world?

Stephen: I can. For one thing, as my Harvard colleague Steven Pinker has recently shown, the overall level of human violence has been declining fairly steadily for quite some time. Furthermore, I believe nuclear weapons are a powerful deterrent to great power wars, and it is these sorts of wars that cause the greatest human suffering. Lastly, I believe that our species has the capacity to learn, and this capacity can help us avoid some of the circumstances that have fueled war in the past. But none of these measures makes war impossible, which is why we need to remain vigilant against its occurrence.

Niaz: What are the responsibilities of developed countries to restrain them from war?  

Stephen: Because developed countries have the most military capability, they have the responsibility of not using it to oppress others. Sometimes developed countries can use force to deter or halt aggression, which is a good thing. But other times they use their superior power to coerce others, or they wage low-level conflicts that kill innocent people to no good purpose.

Niaz: As a global citizen what are our responsibilities for stop killing each others?

Stephen: I think the first step is for global citizens to try to inform themselves about events, and not to trust just what their own governments and media are telling them. A second step is to develop empathy, by trying to imagine how international problems look to others. We don’t have to agree with those whose interests may be different, but we should try to figure out how they see things, and why.  

Niaz: As you know, there are millions of NGOs and social organizations who work for removing poverty, protecting our environment and so on. But what happens in reality? Business Organizations do the harm. Chinese version of capitalism doesn’t work. Governments are corrupted. And NGOs form for doing good. NGOs keep taking donations from business organizations to survive. Overall, this is a strong circle which continues for hundreds of years. Where do our core problems reside actually?

Stephen: I think we need to be very careful here. There are many NGOs and business organizations who do wonderful work in a number of areas. At the same time, there are other organizations whose activities are actively harmful. What we need most is greater transparency: the more we know about what different organizations are actually doing, and the more we know about who is paying for these activities, the easier it is to judge whether they are a positive or negative force.

Niaz: Do you think we can remover poverty by these poverty removal activities?  Why or Why not?

Stephen: Yes, but the record here is mixed. On the plus side, economic development in countries like China and India have lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty, and similar miracles have occurred in a few other places. But on the negative side, the gap between the richest countries and the poorest has actually grown over the past 100 years. When you combine this level of inequality with global communications you have a recipe for trouble, because people in the poorest countries or the poorest sectors can see how the wealthy people are living.

Niaz: What are your ideas to remove poverty and to make life better to contribute in this mother earth for making it a better place?

Stephen: I’m not an expert on economic development, but I think there are several obvious answers here. First, the only way to eliminate poverty is to increase productivity. Second, increasing productivity requires increasing educational levels, and bringing women into the work force in large numbers. It also rests on eliminating barriers to investment and trade, while at the same time creating a legal and regulatory environment that discourages corruption and prevents excessive concentrations of political power in the hands of the wealthy. But none of this is easy or automatic, and when you add it all up, you can see why sustained economic growth is so difficult to achieve.

Niaz: Any last comment?

Stephen: Only this: it is tempting to look for radical solutions, in the belief that some bold stroke will suddenly solve all our problems.   But I think history shows that grand schemes that are supposed to produce some magical solution rarely work, and often cause great misery. Human progress is due to more to patient, steady, trial-and-error efforts, and not from idealistic visions.

Niaz: Dear Stephen thanks again for your invaluable time. We are really enlightened with your ideas, knowledge and experience. We wish you good luck for all of our endeavors. Take very good care of yourself.

Stephen: You are welcome Niaz.

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Further Reading:

1. Peter Klein on Entrepreneurship, Economics and Education

2. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

3. F. M. Scherer on Industrial Economy, Digital Economy and Innovation

4. Diego Comin on Entrepreneurship, Technology and Global Economic Development

5. Joseph Nye on Global Politics

6. Juliana Rotich on Social Entrepreneurial Innovation

Joseph P. Newhouse: Health Economics

Editor’s Note: Dr. Joseph P. Newhouse is the John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy and Management at Harvard University, Director of the Division of Health Policy Research and Education, Chair of the Committee on Higher Degrees in Health Policy, and Director of the Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy.  He is a member of the faculties of the John F. Kennedy School of Government, the Harvard Medical School, the Harvard School of Public Health, and the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, as well as a Faculty Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research.

You can read his full bio from here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Joseph P. Newhouse recently to gain insights about his ideas, research and works in the field of health economics which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Joseph, thank you so much for joining us. We are very honored and delighted to have you at eTalks.

Joseph: It’s my pleasure to join with you.

Niaz: You received B.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Economics from Harvard University. Following your Bachelors degree, you were a Fulbright Scholar in Germany.  You are John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy and Management at Harvard University, Director of the Division of Health Policy Research and Education, Chair of the Committee on Higher Degrees in Health Policy and Director of the Inter-faculty Initiative in Health Policy.  At the beginning of our interview can you please tell us about your educational journey and the transformation of your career from Economics to Healthcare?

Joseph: I have always thought of myself as an economist who worked in the applied area of health and medical care.  After I finished graduate school I joined the RAND Economics Department, intending to spend about half my time working on projects related to health and the other half of my time in other applied areas of economics.  In the domain of health I was interested in the demand for medical care and early on designed what became known as the RAND Health Insurance Experiment.  That projected required my full time – really more than full time – attention for 15 years, by which time I had given up any notion that I would work on topics not related to health and medical care.

Niaz: You are one of the nation’s top health economists. What do you think about health economics?

Joseph: I think health economics has two main streams of work.  One relates to medical care, with the seminal paper being Kenneth Arrow’s 1963 American Economic Review paper, Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care.”  This stream focuses on issues that arise because the market for medical goods and services differs in so many ways from the model of a perfectly competitive market in introductory economics textbooks.  The second relates to health as opposed to medical care, with the seminal work being Michael Grossman’s 1972 Journal of Political Economy paper, On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health” and his earlier National Bureau of Economic Research Monograph, “The Demand for Health.”  This line of work focuses on the actions of individuals that affect their health, and sometimes the health of others as well, including not only seeking medical care but also investing in education and engaging in various behaviors that are either beneficial or detrimental to health.

Niaz: What are the nucleus aspects of health economics that every policy maker should keep in mind?

Joseph: In answering this I take the perspective of a middle or high income country; the issues in low income countries differ somewhat.  The issue at the front of mind of most policy makers I interact with, as well as most citizens, is the cost of medical care.  In almost every country spending on medical care has risen faster than income, meaning it takes an ever larger share of tax revenue and often of households’ after tax income as well.  There are, of course, a huge number of suggestions and approaches coming from health economics to address the cost of care, but in the interest of being succinct, I will just mention two, both of which relate to the distinction between a high level of cost and a high growth rate of cost.

Every health care system has its share of inefficiencies; not surprisingly, most solutions proposed for dealing with health costs are directed at these inefficiencies.  One example is reducing paper work.  Although it is laudable to reduce inefficiency, success means one will have achieved a once-and-for-all reduction in cost, which will not necessarily reduce the steady state growth rate of cost.  In other words, once the inefficiency is eliminated, those savings have been achieved and costs will start to rise again unless a new action is taken.  Yet in the long run it is the steady state rate of growth that is the larger problem.  In other words, by all means minimize inefficiencies, but ultimately policy makers need a strategy for dealing with the growth rate.  Peter Orszag, when he was the director of the US Congressional Budget Office, called such a strategy this bending the curve.

The second observation relates to policies that address cost.  The growth in health care cost stems partly from the growth in income and partly from new and improved methods for treating patients of all sorts such as new drugs, new medical procedures, new medical devices, new imaging, and new diagnostic tests.  Growth in income and growth in knowledge interact; the developers of the new therapies expected to find a market for them, or they would not have proceeded to develop them.  Efforts to reduce the growth rate of cost will almost certainly slow development, but need to be done in a way that considers the benefits that may be foregone by adopting the new policy.  There are many diseases for which current therapy is not very effective, for example, many cancers as well as Alzheimers and other neurodegenerative diseases.  It would be worth giving up quite a lot to have effective cures for these diseases.  I hear too many discussions where it sounds as if the only objective is to reduce cost or the growth rate of cost rather than reduce or eliminate those activities that do not provide sufficient benefit.

Niaz: As you know, millions of people are now living under poverty line. They can’t afford to have food every day. Health care is mostly a day dream for them. After living hand to mouth they depart. And it has been happening decades after decades. What are your suggestions to save those people to live a healthy life and to contribute for this mother earth?

Joseph: My expertise pertains to higher income countries, but economic growth has pulled tens of millions out of poverty in China and India, and many low income countries have started to grow at good rates.  Such growth not only means higher household incomes but also enables public investment in infrastructure that can improve health.  That plus good governance are undoubtedly important in helping these people.

Niaz: Why private Medicare plans don’t cost less?

Joseph: Private Medicare plans are called Medicare Advantage plans.  They generally provide those who join them rather than joining traditional Medicare lower premiums, lower cost sharing, and/or additional covered services, but this is in part because of higher reimbursement.  My own view is that the larger benefit of well run plans, however, is better medical management of many chronic diseases such as diabetes. (I should note that I am a director of, and own equity in, Aetna, which sells Medicare Advantage plans.)

Niaz: We are living in the age of superb technological innovation. Most developed countries are taking optimum advantage of technological innovation for better health care. What are your ideas for under developed, developing and poor countries to take the advantage of technological innovation to build a better health care?

Joseph: Again, my expertise is around higher income countries, but I think an innovation with large promise for low income countries is mobile telephony because medical advice can be given over the phone to lower level personnel when transportation to physicians with more training is not feasible.

Niaz: Different countries have different health care policies. According to you, what should be the most priority for a country in setting health care policy?

Joseph: Each country has its own values, traditions, and health care institutions which quite properly shape its policy. For that reason I doubt that there is a general answer to this question.  But aspects of life styles in many countries are inimical to health.  For example, obesity rates have increased rapidly in many countries, so much so that some demographers predict life expectancy will fall.  Any use of tobacco is damaging to health, and its use varies substantially among countries.  Trying to promote a healthy life style plus insurance coverage to protect households from being devastated financially by illness are priorities that seem applicable to a wide range of countries.

Niaz: What will be the potential challenges/roadblocks in the way of implementing those top priorities? How can countries achieve those priorities?

Joseph: Lifestyles are difficult to change, but we know that taxes can change use of goods such as tobacco.  Changing social norms also help; restricting the use of tobacco in public places, for example, has contributed to an overall fall in use.    Achieving universal coverage is largely a political issue, although there are certainly technical issues.

Niaz: Can you please briefly tell us about your book ‘Free for All: Lessons from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment’? 

Joseph: The booksummarized the results of perhaps the largest health services research project ever done.  The Experiment was a randomized trial that varied the level of initial cost sharing for medical services; some families received all care at no cost to them, others had (approximately) a large deductible, and still others were intermediate.  The cost sharing was scaled down for lower income households.

The use of services clearly responded to what patients had to pay out of pocket; use was roughly 30 percent higher if patients didn’t have to pay that if they faced a large deductible.   For the average person we found minimal deleterious effects of cost sharing on health outcomes, but low income hypertensives had their blood pressure better controlled if care was free.  In addition, some families were randomized to a Health Maintenance Organization, where care was free if it was sought at the Organization.  Those families made markedly less use of the hospital than families in the fee-for-service system and we detected no adverse effects on their health.

Niaz: Our readers will also love to know about ‘Pricing the Priceless: A Health Care Conundrum’. Can you also please tell us about it?

Joseph: This book is an elaboration of the Walras-Pareto Lectures given in Lausanne in 1997.  I tried to summarize the many years I had spent on Commissions that advised the American Congress on setting reimbursement in Medicare.  I went through several examples of how easy it is to misprice in administered price systems and then went on to consider mixed systems of reimbursement, part fee-for-service and part capitation.

Niaz: You have been doing all exciting works in your whole career. You have achieved a wide variety of prestigious awards. You have been leading great organizations. What does excite you always to do the next big thing?

Joseph: To learn what is not known, to teach the next generation, and to learn from my colleagues.

Niaz: I have learned that you love to spend your spare time with your grandchildren and playing golf? Do you actually get spare time? 

Joseph: Most definitely.

Niaz: Can you please share us about the secrets of your sustainable remarkable career? 

Joseph: Thank you for the compliment.  I have tried to work on problems that I felt were important, and I have been blessed to have many wonderful colleagues who have helped me enormously.

Niaz: What is your advice to people who want to follow your footsteps?

Joseph: Choose important problems to work on that motivate you and are tractable, and surround yourself with persons whose skills complement yours.

Niaz: Any last comment?

Joseph: Thank you for giving me this opportunity.

Niaz: Finally, we are grateful to you to have your precious time. Thanks again to share us your invaluable ideas, knowledge and experience. We wish you luck for your good health and impressive works.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Peter Klein on Entrepreneurship, Economics and Education

2. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

3. F. M. Scherer on Industrial Economy, Digital Economy and Innovation

4. Diego Comin on Entrepreneurship, Technology and Global Economic Development

5. Stephen Walt on Global Development

6. Juliana Rotich on Social Entrepreneurial Innovation

7. Joseph Nye on Global Politics

Barry Schwartz: Wisdom and Happiness

Editor’s Note: Barry Schwartz is one of the very few people who thinks Really Big. He is an American psychologist and Dorwin Cartwright Professor of Social Theory and Social Action at Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, where he has taught for thirty year. He spoke at TED Main Stage for three times. He has over 5 Millions Views on his three thoughtful, profound and impressive TED Talks: The paradox of choice, Our loss of wisdom and Using our practical wisdom.

He is the author of several outstanding books including: The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less, Practical Wisdom: The Right Way to Do the Right Thing and The Costs of Living. You can read his full bio from here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Barry Schwartz recently to gain his ideas and insights about Wisdom and Happiness which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Schwartz, thank you so much for joining us. We are honored and thrilled to have you at eTalks.

B. Schwartz: My pleasure, Niaz.

Niaz: In 2010, you along with Kenneth Sharpe have published a book called ‘Practical Wisdom’. You call practical wisdom the “Master Virtue”. At the beginning of our interview can you please tell us about practical wisdom?

B. Schwartz: I call it the master virtue because it helps us decide whether, how, and how much to display other virtues. For example, courage is the mean (Aristotle’s word) between cowardice and recklessness.  It takes wisdom to find the mean.  Honesty is a virtue and kindness is a virtue but sometimes we have to choose between them.  Wisdom is what enables us to do so.

Niaz: You’ve said in the past that we’ve lost practical wisdom. How and when did we lose it?

B. Schwartz: Wisdom has to be nurtured by giving people the opportunity to use their judgment, get feedback, and improve their judgment over time.  We have substituted rules for judgment.  As a result, people can do the same job for 30 years and have the same bad judgment after 30 years as they had when they started.

Niaz: Why do you think “The good news is you don’t need to be brilliant to be wise. The bad news is that without wisdom, brilliance isn’t enough.”?

B. Schwartz: Because it takes judgment to do the right thing in the complex social world.  Being brilliant does not mean that you have good judgment.

Niaz: Can you please tell us about how wisdom applies to happiness?

B. Schwartz: Here is how I think wisdom applies to happiness.  Two key determinants of happiness are meaningful, engaging work and close relations with other people.  I think wisdom is essential for both of these things.  If you are wise, your work is better and your social relations are better.

Niaz: Why does ‘the secret to happiness is low expectations’?

B. Schwartz: Because we evaluate what we get by comparing it to what we expected to get.  If our expectations are too high, we’ll be disappointed with even good results.

Niaz: I have one other major question. You said that what makes people happiest is close relationships, not having things, even though these relationships constrain our choices. But don’t relationships also expand our choices — in a superficial way, by people giving us information about movies to see, places to vacation, etc. — and also in a more profound way, by giving us a chance to experience the world through other eyes, and see other ways of viewing things?

B. Schwartz: You don’t need close relationships to get movie recommendations.  Close relationships imply mutual concern and obligation.  That constrains choices.

Niaz: And in terms of happiness, what is your word on decision making?

B. Schwartz: My word is that too many options can undermine happiness inducing paralysis, bad decisions and dissatisfaction with even good decision.  So also can having standards that are too high—always wanting the best.

Niaz: You say that rules are the enemy of moral skill. But many people are saying that the country’s current financial meltdown was caused by an absence of rules and regulations.

B. Schwartz: Yes.  We need rules. Absolutely. But anyone who thinks that the “right” rules will solve the problem of financial irresponsibility is kidding him or herself.

Niaz: As you know, modern times, technological innovation and western prosperity have enabled us to do just about anything we want. What is the downside?

B. Schwartz: First, now that we can do anything we want, we can’t figure out what we want to do.  Also, we adapt to good things we experience in life so that they stop feeling like good things and we look for even better things.

Niaz: In 2005, you have published ‘The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less’. What is the “paradox of choice”?

B. Schwartz: The paradox is that more choice should enhance our sense of freedom but for many it leads to paralysis.  The paradox is that lots of choice should enable us to make better choices and thus be more satisfied but it makes us less satisfied.

Niaz: In the NYT magazine, scientist Roy Baumeister talks about decision fatigue: His theory is that too many decisions wear us out and negatively affect our judgment.

B. Schwartz: Yes, and he’s correct.

Niaz: What’s the scope of the paradox of choice?

B. Schwartz: I don’t know, but I suspect it applies to everything.

Niaz: What about outside consumer goods?

B. Schwartz: Jobs, places to live, what to study, where to study, romantic attachments.  It operates in all of those domains as well.

Niaz: What happens as we become more, if not over-reliant on filters?

B. Schwartz: Relying on filters helps us solve the problem of too much choice.  Of course the filters have to be good ones.

Niaz: How far would you take your experiment before you offer, to quote Henry Ford, “any color, as long as it’s black”?

B. Schwartz: I would never do that.  Choice is good.  The trick is to figure out how much choice allows us to derive the benefits of choice without paying the price.

Niaz:  Do you think people in their 20s and 30s are having more problems than earlier generations in making some of these major life decisions — are putting off choosing a career, a mate — some of those really big decisions?

B. Schwartz: Yes.  Absolutely.

Niaz: Finally, how do you nurture people to do the right thing?

B. Schwartz: You do it by setting an example, by giving people a chance to use their judgment and by being there to catch them when they fall and help them improve their judgment.

Niaz: Thanks again for joining us and sharing your enlightening ideas and knowledge. We wish you good luck as well as we want your healthy and safe life. Take very good care.

B. Schwartz: You’re welcome Niaz.

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Further Reading:

1. Jeff Haden on Pursuing Excellence

2. Daniel Pink on To Sell is Human

3. Gautam Mukunda on Leadership

4. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

5. Peter Klein on Entrepreneurship, Economics and Education

6. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

Ryan Holladay: Technology and Music

Editor’s Note: Ryan Holladay is an American artist and co-founder (along with his brother Hays Holladay) of BLUEBRAIN, a music and technology duo creating site-specific sound installations, interactive concerts and GPS-based compositions for sites across the country.  He is a TED 2013 Fellow. WIRED dubbed Ryan and Hays as “pioneers” of location-based music composition.

Bluebrain has been featured in The New York Times, BBC World Service, The Guardian, The Washington Post, Rolling Stone, Engadget and Fast Company among others. Additionally, Ryan serves as the new media curator at Artisphere.  You can read his full bio from here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Ryan Holladay recently to gain his ideas and insights about Technology and Music which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Ryan, thank you so much for joining us. We are thrilled to have you at eTalks.

Ryan: Thanks for having me Niaz.

Niaz: You are a self taught musician.  Can you please tell us about your background and the evolution of your musical journey?

Ryan: Well self-taught isn’t quite accurate. I would say I’m just under-trained. I took piano lessons as a child and then learned other instruments along the way. But neither my brother and I (with whom I collaborate on everything) would consider ourselves masters of any instrument. I think the studio has always been our instrument. And with that, we are self-taught.

Niaz: You are the co-founder of ‘BLUEBRAIN’, a music and technology duo creating site-specific sound installations, interactive concerts and GPS-based compositions for sites across the country. Can you please briefly tell us about ‘BLUEBRAIN’?

Ryan: So Bluebrain stemmed from my brother and I dreaming up ideas that didn’t fit in the category of a normal band. We love performing music and releasing records, but we also have always talked about ideas of ours that didn’t really make sense within your touring band scenario. We were taking inspiration from conceptual art, landscape architecture and emerging technologies. So eventually in our mid-twenties, when our last more or less typical band ended, we formed Bluebrain with the idea that no ideas were really off the table. So yes, sound installation, interactive performances, even iPhone app development became central to what we were doing. So much so that the typical “band” label didn’t seem to fit us at all after a while.

Hays Holladay and Ryan Holladay

BLUEBRAIN: Ryan Holladay and Hays Holladay

Niaz: How many instruments you do play?

Ryan: I’ve always been better at piano and Hays is really an incredible guitarist. But really, neither of us are virtuosic. We use the studio and get by with the musical skills we have.

Niaz: What are your current projects?

Ryan: We have a number of things in the works right now, but primarily we’ve been spending time as visiting artists at Stanford University’s Experimental Media Arts Department working on a location-aware composition for Highway 1. It’s been a fun project and one that allows us to get to spend time on one of the most beautiful stretches of road anywhere in North America.

Niaz: WIRED dubbed you and Hays as “pioneers” of location-based music composition. What is location based music composition?

Ryan: Location-based music is the somewhat clumsy term we’ve used to describe a type of composition that uses GPS to sonically map a landscape. We have released 3 albums, each for a different location (The National Mall in Washington DC, Central Park in New York and Austin, Texas for SXSW Interactive), released exclusively as mobile apps. These aren’t albums you can download or purchase on a CD. That’s because the music and the landscape are intrinsically linked and they only work within the confines of the designated space. Musical nodes and pockets are geotagged throughout a park so that as the listener traverses the physical space, a musical score is unfolding around him or her. Think of it as a chose-your-own-adventure of an album.

Niaz: That’s really awesome. You serve as the new media curator at ‘Artisphere’. Can you please tell us about ‘Artisphere’ and your involvement with it?

Ryan: Artisphere is 3-year old arts space in Rosslyn, Virginia — just over Key Bridge outside of Washington DC. I am one of two curators and I deal with all of the new media work — so video art, film, sound art, anything that plugs in or is interactive. It’s a wonderfully symbiotic job that compliments my work as an artist very well — they’ve been really supportive of all of the work I do with my brother and I think our experiences with Bluebrain have introduced me to artists that I wouldn’t have met otherwise and have brought into Artisphere. I’m really fortunate to have such an amazing job.

Niaz: What do you think about the future of music?

Ryan: I don’t know how well I can answer that question, but I can tell you that my desire is to see artists and music companies start to innovate more than they have. I think music lends itself to disruption so much — not just in how we consume and share it but in how it’s created and enjoyed. As artists begin to explore more how to use these technologies, not simply to add bells and whistles to the old model, but to dream up new ways to experience music in our everyday lives, I think things will get more and more exciting.

Niaz: By the way, my heartiest congratulation for you on being selected as TED Fellow 2013. What are your favorite TED Talks?

Ryan: There are so many! I’ve always had a fondness for talks about architecture. Having lived in Seattle for a while, I really loved ‘Joshua Prince-Ramus‘ talk on creating the breathtaking Seattle Public Library.

Niaz: When are we going to see your TED Talk? 

Ryan: Hopefully sometime soon! They don’t tell me when the talk will hit the web but I’ll be sure to let you know when it goes live.

Niaz: Ryan, thanks so much for your time and ideas. All the best wishes for your all upcoming projects.

Ryan: You’re welcome and good luck to you too.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger on Big Data Revolution

2. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

3. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

4. Brian Keegan on Big Data

5. danah boyd on Future of Technology and Social Media

6. Irving Wladawsky-Berger on Evolution of Technology and Innovation

7. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

8. James Allworth on Disruptive Innovation

Philip Kotler: Marketing for Better World

Editor’s Note: Professor Dr. Philip Kotler is the S.C. Johnson & Son Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. He has been honored as one of the world’s Leading Marketing Thinkers. He received his Master’s Degree at the University of Chicago and his PhD Degree at MIT, both in Economics. He did post-doctoral work in Mathematics at Harvard University and in Behavioral Science at the University of Chicago.

Professor Kotler is the author of several bestselling books including Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control. It is the most widely used marketing book in graduate business schools worldwide. He has published over one hundred articles in leading journals, several of which have received best-article awards.

He has been a consultant to IBM, General Electric, Sony, AT&T, Bank of America, Merck, Motorola, Ford, and others. The Financial Times included him in its list of the top 10 Business Thinkers.

You can read his full bio from here, here, here, here and here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Philip Kotler recently to gain insights about his ideas, research and works in the field of marketing and creating better world.

Niaz: Dear Kotler, thank you so much for joining us. We are delighted and honored to have you at eTalks.

Philip Kotler:  Niaz, thank you for having me.

Niaz: You are an economist trained at the University of Chicago (M.A.) and MIT (Ph.D.). Three of your Professors were Nobel Prize Economists – Milton Friedman, Paul Samuelson, and Robert Solow. But you have been cited as the world’s foremost expert on the Strategic Practice of Marketing. Can you please tell us a little bit about yourself and why marketing became such a big factor in your life?

Philip Kotler:  Throughout my study of economic theory, I was bothered by the absence of discussions of distribution institutions (wholesalers, retailers, agents, jobbers, etc.) and promotional tools (advertising, sales promotion, and salesforce).  It seemed to me that the level of market demand and individual company demand are heavily influenced by these institutions and activities as well as price (which absorbed the most attention of economists).  When I was offered a position to teach either economics or marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, I chose to teach marketing so that I could show that it was a branch of economic science.

I moved into the question of what influences the level, composition and timing of customer demand and what are the determinants of individual demand.  Classic economics assumes a world of rational buyers and rational producers.  I always felt that this grossly oversimplified the understanding of customer behavior and producer behavior.  The recent growth of interest in behavioral economics in contrast to classical economics is bringing many missing institutions and activities into economic focus.

Niaz: So how do you define Marketing?

Philip Kotler: The shortest definition of marketing is “Finding needs and filling them profitably.”  However, I would rather cite the American Marketing Association’s definition that says “Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for consumers, clients, partners, and society at large.”  (American Marketing Association, 2008)

Niaz: In this hyper competitive era, what do you think about the Position of Marketing in Total Business Operation? How can marketing change the entire game plan?

Philip Kotler:  In spite of the fact that marketing is now headed by a Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) who presumably participates in the company’s strategy development, I find in many companies that the CMO is not invited or expected to be an active participant in strategy development.  It’s as if senior management wants the CMO to continue managing the marketing work without interfering with long range strategic planning.

The irony is that the CMO is the person in the company who is closest to the changing marketplace and is in the best position to spot new opportunities for the company.  Because the CMO is probably going to have a left brand (analytical) and a right brain (creative), CMOs are more likely to work as game changers during the planning process.  We expect CMOs to have a very deep understanding of customers, competitors, distributors, and suppliers.

If I ran a company, I would want my Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) to be modeled on Steve Jobs and come up with big, new ideas and also be modeled on Bill Gates with a deep grasp of business analytics.

Niaz: Your Marketing Management book is in its 14th edition and is used in most MBA Marketing courses worldwide. A certified classic, the book has ranked among the Top 200 Titles on Amazon.com and been named among the 50 Best Business Books of All Time by Financial Times. You published the first edition of this book around 46 years ago. So what are the revolutionary changes has occurred by this time in our society?

Philip Kotler: During this period, I have witnessed a lot of changes in the marketplace and I have managed to portray them in each new edition of Marketing Management, now in the 14th edition.  My editions helped emphasize the need to adopt a customer orientation; to precede the 4Ps with segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP); to move into higher mathematics and better marketing metrics to show accountability; to emphasize the social responsibilities of marketing; to broaden marketing to cover the marketing of places, people, and ideas; to recognize the importance of relationship marketing over transaction marketing; and to recognize the revolutionary power of digital and social marketing.  My next edition will enlarge on some new trends such as co-creation, crowdsourcing, sustainability, dynamic pricing, digital marketing, marketing automation, and growth strategies.

Niaz: What are the biggest shifts you see happening among consumer attitudes and behaviors right now and how is technology influencing this?

Philip Kotler:  Consumers are worried about the future and their ability to keep their job and hopefully earn a good and growing income.  They see the high level of unemployment in the U.S. and Europe and see a growing number of industries – music, publishing, movies, retail book stores – being disrupted by online and digital marketing.  This leads consumers to save more and spend less which only increases the loss of jobs.  And companies see only two ways to compete, either by presenting a lower price to reach the mass market (Wal-Mart) or by presenting a higher price to reach the affluent (Gucci).  The middle is gone.

Niaz: How are those shifts affecting Marketing?

Philip Kotler:  The big problem facing companies today is how to grow in a low growth market. My answer is that marketers face more opportunities and hidden pockets of growth than they normally recognize.  I just published Market Your Way to Growth: Eight Ways to Win. There are eight chapters and each examines a specific pathway to growth.  I worry that companies get stuck in one strategy that is now showing diminishing returns and fail to shift in time to any of the other seven pathways to growth.

Niaz: What kind of impact are the Internet, Social Media and other Advances in Communications Technology having on marketing?

Philip Kotler:  The Internet is having an impact today that is comparable to what the world felt when Gutenberg introduced the idea of printing.  The Internet, social media and new communication technologies are major game changers in marketing.  No longer does the company own its brand by having a monopoly on communications about their brands.  It is the consumers and their peer-to-peer talk that is shaping our images of brands and what to buy and how much to pay.  Furthermore, no company can afford to deceive customers without being quickly exposed on the Internet.

Niaz: Are the ‘four Ps’ still a useful framework?

Philip Kotler:  Yes.  Please appreciate that the 4Ps are the basis of a marketing plan.  Any respectable marketing plan must discuss the company’s decisions on Product, Price, Place and Promotion. If the company wants to add some other things, they are either already implied in the four Ps or could be added.  For example, services are part of the product, and sales force is part of promotion.  Packaging is part of the product.  Recently Professor Jagdish Sheth introduced the four A’s – Availability, Affordability, Acceptability, and Awareness – but I see the 4As not as a competitor but a useful complement that precedes the setting of the 4Ps. The 4As identify the consumer conditions that should be satisfied and it is the job of the 4Ps to follow upon the 4As.

Niaz: What do you see the role of technology being in the new marketing mix?

Philip Kotler:  New technologies affect all of the 4Ps. The advent of 3D Printing will help entrepreneurs design new products cheaper and faster.  The development of software to do dynamic pricing will allow airlines to change the price of seats depending on the number of seats already sold. The development of new distribution channels such as online selling and eBay are increasing the ease of transacting.  The development of social media technologies such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube are changing our tools for promotion.

Niaz: Well known marketers like Yvon Chouinard, the founder of Patagonia, believe that “traditional advertising is dead.” Is he correct or misled, and why?

Philip Kotler:  This statement makes a good headline but it is inaccurate.  Traditional advertising will continue in its role as brand builder but it will have to do it with a lower budget.  Some percentage of every advertising budget will have to move into digital and social media marketing.  Right now this may be 5 percent, then 10 percent, and conceivably in five or more years 50 percent.  The more correct statement of Yvon Chouinard would be that traditional advertising will increasingly partner with digital marketing, one supporting the other in a synergistic way.

I will add one more thought about advertising.  What is most important in advertising is copy, not media.  The best media won’t make up for poor copy.  I don’t think advertising agencies come up with exceptional campaigns.  Of the last 10 campaigns that you saw, you are unlikely to be impressed with more than one.  Most campaigns simply lack originality and punch.  I prefer to hire three advertising agencies and pay them for three campaign ideas for the same product and then choose the best campaign idea and hire a separate media agency to develop the best media mix to carry the best of the three campaign ideas to the target audience.

Niaz: Let’s look at marketing in the future. What changes are going to occur within in next couple of decades?

Philip Kotler:  Here are four changes out of many:

1. Companies will increasingly invite customers to co-create products with the company.

2. Companies will increasingly resort to crowdsourcing to get ideas for new products, new advertising campaigns, and new sales promotion ideas.

3. Companies will increasingly move to marketing automation where they use artificial intelligence to carry out marketing activities that were formerly done by skilled marketers.

4. Companies will increasingly learn how to produce “lovemarks” with their customers and employees.

Niaz: What are the points that a CMO must remember now before setting marketing plan?

Philip Kotler:  The first need is to get each marketing planner to carefully define the target audience and deeply understand their needs and desires and the main triggers to purchase.  The aim should be to discover something new about that target audience, some new insight into their psyche that will cause them to want to take the offer.

Niaz: As you know Disruptive Innovation sometimes makes Customer Driven Company obsolete. In addition to giving most priority to customers, companies now need to focus on some other important factors like changing technological trend, innovation, market shifts and so on. Now, what are your suggestions for companies to set marketing plans in order to save their companies from getting obsolete for Disruptive Innovation?

Philip Kotler:  Every company and industry is in danger of disruption.  The choice facing a company is whether to be disrupted or be the disrupter.  I would advise a company to run a meeting ever so often to consider everything that might disrupt the company, whether it is a new technology, a shift in consumer tastes or their pocketbook, etc.

Each possible disruption needs to be assessed for its severity and its probability of happening.  A serious probable disruption poses the following choice.  Either sell the business now before it loses its value due to the imminent disruption, or invest in the disruption to replace your business and become the disrupter.

Niaz: How can marketing help Startups to survive in front of giant competitors like Google, Facebook, Amazon and Apple?

Philip Kotler:  Many entrepreneurs precisely try to take a bite out of a giant competitor.  Right now, several companies are trying to hit Google by setting up a more focused search system.   Their aim is not to slay Google so much as ironically to sell out to Google.  Giant companies are well prepared to buy up any company that carries a disruptive potential and either bury it on the shelf or expand it into another business opportunity.

Niaz: What are the secrets of revolutionary marketing?

Philip Kotler:  I don’t use the term revolutionary marketing.  You might mean Guerrilla Marketing whereby a small company attacks a giant firm on a hit and miss basis.  Or do you mean a company that will create a paradigm change?  For example, Tom’s shoes has proven that online selling of shoes works.  Tom’s offers to send three different sizes of the same shoe, expecting the customer to buy the best fit and return the other two pairs.  In addition, Tom says that it will give a free pair of shoes to a poor person for every pair sold to a customer.  This principle is now adopted by a new eye glass company that will send several glass frames by mail from which the customer makes a choice, and in addition the company will supply a free pair of glasses to a poor person who can’t afford to pay.

Niaz: One of your recent books is Chaotics. Can you please give us a brief of ‘Chaotics’?

Philip Kotler:  John Caslione and I wrote Chaotics right after the financial crash that took place in 2007 to caution companies against making the wrong responses to the crisis.  Most companies wanted to cut their costs and lower their prices.  This is not always the most appropriate response in chaotic, turbulent times.  Some companies should actually increase their marketing spend and take advantage of the crisis.  Consider that some competitors are weakened more than your company and this is the time to attack, not withdraw.  This is the time to build your market share which in normal times cannot be moved a few points.  We discuss the appropriate decisions that companies in different situations need to make in their marketing, production, finance and other functions to take advantage of the turbulence.

Niaz: You have published the seminal article in 1971 coining the term “Social Marketing” in its original use. Can you please tell us about ‘Social Marketing’?

Philip Kotler:  Forty two years ago, Gerald Zaltman and I published “Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change” in the Journal of Marketing.  We felt that marketing science can apply to more than the marketing of goods and services.  Marketing can help in designing and promoting solutions to social problems, such as smoking, hard drugs, poverty, hunger, and others.  Marketing always starts with a customer analysis of the barriers and benefits that influence customer behavior. In the case of tobacco use, we need to distinguish the different segments of smokers and prepare a different 4P marketing campaign to help facilitate the decision to stop smoking.  We could have named this “cause marketing” but we chose to name it “social marketing” to imply that marketing has a social side, not just a commercial side.  Today there are thousands of social marketers trained in the basics of marketing and applying marketing to alleviate problems of poverty, hunger, poor nutrition, education, and health.  Recently the third World Social Marketing conference was held in Toronto, Canada with 600 attendees.

Niaz: You are the first recipient of the American Marketing Association Foundation’s “Marketing for a Better World” Award. Can you please tell us how can marketing be used to make this world a better place?

Philip Kotler:  We can create a better world through marketing in several ways.  Commercially, we can improve our products and services and find ways to lower their prices and costs.  Socially, we can work on specific social problems and reduce their severity through the application of social marketing.  Societally, we can assist companies in defining the areas where they can make charitable contributions and work with others to improve the quality of life.

Niaz: Is there a personal influence or anecdote from your own life that you can share regarding the attention you’ve given to solving social problems?

Philip Kotler:  When HIV/AIDs broke out as a major disease and took the lives of so many young adults, I developed a strategy for influencing young adults to avoid situations where they could contract AIDS.  It was important to avoid these situations and also get early testing if they might have contracted the disease.  I worked with the YMCA and other organizations to help them develop campaigns.  I didn’t think that straight education campaigns on the dangers of AIDS would be enough to demotivate certain behaviors.  Happily, modern medicines began to appear to help AIDS victims lead a longer life.

Niaz: Why do you think marketing is a great tool to change the world?

Philip Kotler:  Marketing’s starting point is with consumer well-being. Marketing is about the maximization of consumer well-being.  It also takes into account the well-being of employees, distributors,   suppliers, investors and other stakeholders. 

Niaz: How does Marketing can help us profoundly to change the world to make it a better place to live?

Philip Kotler:  There are at least three types of marketing that will contribute greatly to making the world a better place to live. 

1. Commercial marketing, in assisting companies to make better products and services for the poor, the middle class, and the affluent.

2. Social marketing, in assisting governments, nonprofit organizations and “caring” companies to influence more salutary behaviors such as better nutrition, regular exercise, desisting from smoking or using hard drugs, being environmental, etc.

3. Place marketing, in assisting cities, regions and nations to attract tourists and visitors and new residents and factories and retail chains so that life can be improved for all in those places.

Niaz: Thanks you so much for your invaluable time. All the best wishes for your good health and impressive works. We are grateful to have you at eTalks. Your ideas, knowledge and expertise are worth spreading. Thank you once again.

Philip Kotler:  You are welcome Niaz. I must compliment you on raising very good questions.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

2. F. M. Scherer on Industrial Economy, Digital Economy and Innovation

3. Stephen Walt on Global Development

4. Gautam Mukunda on Leadership

5. Rita McGrath on Strategy in Volatile and Uncertain Environments

6. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

Rita McGrath: Strategy in Volatile and Uncertain Environments

Editor’s Note: Rita Gunther McGrath, a Professor at Columbia Business School, is a globally recognized expert on strategy in uncertain and volatile environments. She is an author of three books: The Entrepreneurial Mindset, Marketbusters and Discovery-Driven Growth. She is about to publish her new book: The End of Competitive Advantage (Harvard Business Review Press). In addition, she has been a regular contributor at Harvard Business Review. Her thinking is highly regarded by readers and clients who include Pearson, Coca-Cola Enterprises, General Electric, Alliance Boots, and the World Economic Forum. She is a popular instructor, a sought-after speaker, and a consultant to senior leadership teams. She was recognized as one of the top 20 management thinkers by global management award Thinkers50 in 2011.

She’s also been recognized as one of the top ten business school professors to follow on Twitter. In 2009, she was inducted as a Fellow of the Strategic Management Society; an honor accorded those who have had a significant impact on the field. In 2013 she will serve as Dean of the Fellows.  You can read her full bio from here. Follow her on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. Read her regular write ups at Harvard Business Review Posts.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Rita McGrath recently to gain her ideas and insights on Strategy in Volatile and Uncertain Environments which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Rita, thank you so much for joining us. We are thrilled to have you at eTalks.

Rita McGrath: It’s a pleasure.

Niaz: You are globally recognized expert on Strategy in uncertain and volatile environment.  Can you please tell us about the term ‘Strategy’? Why is strategy so much important?

Rita McGrath: Strategy is fundamentally about making choices.  Choices, of course, about what to do but equally importantly about what not to do.  I think of strategy as a central, integrated concept of how we’re going to achieve our objectives.  In a business sense, it’s what customers we seek to serve, what we’re going to do for them that is better than other options they have, and how we differentiate our offerings.

Niaz: How to differentiate between ‘Personal Strategy to live everyday life’ and ‘Business Strategy to Run Google’?

Rita McGrath: Personal strategy obviously involves your own choices about how you are going to spend your time, invest your resources and plan for your future.  A business strategy is different in that it involves persuading many more people to support you and take actions that are consistent with your vision for the future.

Niaz: How can we integrate personal and business strategy to ensure that both personal life and professional life are going smooth and exciting?

Rita McGrath: I think you need to allocate personal time to different activities and then let the best uses of your time in each case “win”.  I don’t think you always have personal and professional life in perfect balance – but you can try to get them to work together.  I like to use the metaphor of a gyroscope – never falls over but adjusts to its environment.

Niaz: You have written an article at Harvard Business Review Blog ‘The world is more complex than it used to be’. How the world is more complex than it used to be? And why?

Rita McGrath: As I say in the article, it’s because things are more connected and interdependent than they have historically been.  That means that you can have interactions that are unpredictable, so that you can’t predict the outcome by knowing the initial conditions.  The net and advanced communications technologies have made many more connections than used to be possible.

Niaz: In your book ‘The Entrepreneurial Mindset’, you have said, ‘We have to have Entrepreneurial Mindset to succeed in unpredictable world’. Why do you think entrepreneurial mindset can help us to succeed in unpredictable world?

Rita McGrath: Because in a world of temporary advantage, you need to innovate to create a pipeline of new advantages even as old ones fades away.  That requires thinking like an entrepreneur at all times.

Niaz: How can we stop acting by the old rules and start thinking with the discipline of habitual entrepreneurs?

Rita McGrath: Adopt what I call the “new playbook” for strategy – stop thinking in terms of sustainable advantage and start considering what strategy looks like when advantages are temporary.  For instance, get away from industry analysis and realize that you are competing in arenas.  And that your most significant competition may come from other industries, not within your own.

Niaz: As you know we love to talk about ideas, spreading ideas and getting inspired by ideas. But at the end of the day, Business Models are very important to implement and survive with those ideas. Can you please tell us about Business Model and its importance?

Rita McGrath: Well, an idea without a business model behind it is simply entertainment, in my view.  A business model describes what you are going to sell, to whom you are going to sell it and how you are going to get paid for it.  If you don’t have that, you don’t really have a business.

Niaz: In this world of full of uncertainties how to make great and sustainable Business Model?

Rita McGrath: I think it’s going to have more to do with networks and longstanding ties than with product or service innovation.  It will also have to do with the customer experience – that’s much harder to copy than a technical innovation.

Niaz: What should be the strategy of startup companies those who are getting all giant companies like Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon as competitors?

Rita McGrath: Find a customer niche that really wants what only you can provide and service them with well designed offerings that create a complete experience.

Niaz: Can you please briefly tell us about your best selling HBR article ‘Discovery Driving Planning’?

Rita McGrath: Discovery Driven Planning was developed to create a disciplined way of planning for new ventures, when you don’t have a lot of information.  It emphasizes learning and incorporating new information into your plan when you hit key checkpoints in the development of your venture.  It provides a discipline, but one that is suitable for uncertain environments.

Niaz: Why do we need ‘Discovery Driving Planning’?

Rita McGrath: Because conventional plans don’t work without a great deal of information that you simply don’t have with a new venture.  It’s a recipe for developing big, expensive  flops, like the Iridium project or the recent bankrupt casino in Atlantic City.

Niaz: In your books ‘Market Busters’, you cited, ‘Companies must grow to survive’. Can you please tell us how to identify specific types of growth opportunities?

Rita McGrath: In marketbusters, we look at 5 lenses to find new growth opportunities.  First is the lens of the customer experience – how can you make that better.  Then, are there ways to reconfigure products and services to better match customers’ desires. Next, could you develop a new business model?  Or anticipate and take advantage of shifts in your entire industry?  Or finally discover entirely new market spaces where you could compete.  We find that any one or more of these can help to identify opportunities.

Niaz: You have said, ‘For Growth, New Ideas Aren’t Enough’. So what do we need in addition to ideas for growth? 

Rita McGrath: A systematic innovation process, with a governance process, a funding process and concrete ways for ideas to get transformed into businesses.

Niaz: By this time we have created much knowledge, generated many ideas, innovated important tools and gained efficient and effective productivity. In such an exciting time, we see companies to fail to grow. Why so many good companies fail at growth?

Rita McGrath: Because they are trapped in old ways of thinking.  Many try to exploit old businesses, even though that isn’t where their future lies.

Niaz: Could you explain the principal steps that a company needs to go through to create a growth framework?

Rita McGrath: Sure. These are the steps-

  1. Identify the growth gap
  2. Obtain senior level support and resource commitment
  3. Set up an innovation governance process
  4. Build a system to deliver the key steps – ideation, incubation, launch, acceleration – of a successful  venturing program
  5. Create the supporting processes for innovation

I go into this in more detail in my new book – I can send you a copy if you’d like.

Niaz: I would really love to get a copy. Rita, Thank you so much for giving us your invaluable time, sharing us you impressive ideas and illuminating us with your great experience. All the best wishes for your upcoming book ‘The End of Competitive Advantage’.

Rita McGrath: You’re welcome Niaz.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

01. Philip Kotler on Marketing for Better World

02. Hugh Mac­Leod on Creativity and Art

03. Daniel Pink on To Sell is Human

04. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

05. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

06. Jeff Haden on Pursuing Excellence

07. Philip Delves Broughton on What they teach you at Harvard?

08. Gautam Mukunda on Leadership

09. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

Peter Weijmarshausen: 3D Printing

Editor’s Note: Peter Weijmarshausen is a pioneer of 3D Printing. He is passionate to make new and exciting technology accessible for everyone. He is Co-Founder and CEO of Shapeways, the leading 3D printing marketplace and community that helps people make, buy and sell anything they want. Shapeways started in the Philips Lifestyle Incubator in the Netherlands in 2007, and spun off as an independent company in 2010. The company is headquartered in New York, with offices in Eindhoven and Seattle. You can read his full bio from here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Peter Weijmarshausen recently to gain his ideas and insights on 3D Printing which is given below.

Niaz: Peter, thank you so much for joining us. We are thrilled to have you at eTalks.

Peter: It’s my pleasure to be here Niaz.

Niaz: You have been working with 3D printing for long time. You have co-founded ‘Shapeways’, the leading 3D printing marketplace and community. And now working as the CEO of ‘Shapeways’. Can you please give us a brief of the evolution of 3D printing?

Peter: I’ve been working with 3D Printing for quite some time now. Prior to Shapeways, I worked for a company that published the first free 3D software, called Blender.

3D Printing has been around for awhile. At the time when Shapeways was founded (in 2007), 3D Printing was still very expensive and used primarily on rapid prototyping. People were using 3D software but thought it was impossible to hold their designs in their hands.  By 2008, we launched Shapeways.com and started 3D Printing the impossible. In 2010, we spun out of Philips and moved headquarters to New York.

Niaz: Do you think the average person should care about 3D printing and why?

Peter: Definitely. 3D Printing is revolutionizing the way consumers think about products. Currently, we settle for store bought products. With 3D Printing you can customize products to your exact need.

Niaz: What are some of the current applications of 3D Printing?

Peter: There are a ton of applications for 3D Printing. At Shapeways, we have a very diverse community: we see a lot of hobbyists using Shapeways to create custom products to fit their various hobbies, as well as jewelry designers using Shapeways to create beautiful pieces. There are also a host of companies using 3D Printing to fuel innovation in various fields, such as the medical industry.

Niaz: What are the primary issues 3D Printers still need to overcome?

Peter: Learning how to 3D Model is still quite hard. This being said, we’re working to lower the barrier to entry so that anyone can create real-life products from digital 3D files. We just launched a new API that allows developers to easily create applications that make printable objects!

Niaz: Do you think we can literally make everything with 3D printing?

Peter: Currently, we can’t make everything using 3D Printing. For example, we still can’t 3D Print Electronics.

Niaz: Will we be able make everything with 3D printing in near future?

Peter: I don’t see why not.

Niaz: Those who don’t know about ‘Shapeways’, can you please give a brief of your company?

Peter: On Shapeways, individuals can make, buy and sell their own products. We 3D print everything on- demand, which means that every order is customized and personalized. By providing a platform for our community members to share ideas and gain access to cutting edge technology, we’re bringing personalized production to everyone.

Niaz: Do you have any estimation of the numbers of products that you have already made at ‘Shapeways’?

Peter: We currently have over 250,000+ community members in over 130 countries and have printed well over 1,000,000 products to date. These numbers continue to grow at a faster rate.

Niaz: What are the most exciting products that ‘Shapeways’ community has created?

Peter: We see so many exciting, amazing products created daily. One of my favorites is the Strandbeest, it has over 90 moving parts and requires no assembly!

Niaz: What are the responses from customers?

Peter: Our community is incredibly grateful for the service we provide. We often receive emails and blog posts thanking us!

Niaz: Any negative feedback?

Peter: As with any company that supplies physical products, we see some customer complaints but our customer service team is well equipped to handle .

Niaz: What does Shapeways have planned for 2013?

Peter: We’re currently building out our factory in Long Island City! Once fully built out we’ll have 30-50 3D printers in LIC capable of printing 3-5 million parts a year. It’s ambitious but it’s possible and we can’t wait to see the factory come to life.

Niaz: Wow! That’s really impressive. Where do you see the 3D Printing industry going over the next 5 years?

Peter: We will see products emerge that we’ve never imagined before – mind blowing shapes and solutions. I envision Shapeways continuing to grow in both employee number and locations. I can’t wait to see what will happen in the next five years.

Niaz: Peter, thank you so much for giving us time in the midst of your busy schedule. I am wishing you good luck for the New Factory as well as for all exciting things that you are doing in 3D Printing Industry.

Peter: You’re welcome Niaz.

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Further Reading:

1. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger on Big Data Revolution

2. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

3. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

4. Brian Keegan on Big Data

5. danah boyd on Future of Technology and Social Media

6. Irving Wladawsky-Berger on Evolution of Technology and Innovation

7. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

8. James Allworth on Disruptive Innovation

Viktor Mayer-Schönberger: Big Data Revolution

Editor’s Note: Viktor Mayer-Schönberger is Professor of Internet Governance and Regulation at the Oxford Internet Institute of Oxford University. He is also a faculty affiliate of the Belfer Center of Science and International Affairs at Harvard University. He has published nine books (most recently Big Data: A Revolution That Transforms How we Work, Live, and Think with Kenneth Cukier) and is the author of over a hundred articles and book chapters on the governance of information. He is a frequent public speaker, and sought expert for print and broadcast media worldwide. He and his work have been featured in (among others) New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, The Economist, Nature, Science, NPR, BBC, The Guardian, Le Monde, El Pais, Die Zeit, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Der Spiegel, Boston Globe, Los Angeles Tribune, WIRED, Ars Technica, Daily Kos. You can read his full bio from here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Viktor Mayer-Schönberger recently to gain insights about his ideas, research and works in the field of Big Data which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Viktor, thank you so much for joining us. We are very delighted to have you at eTalks

Viktor: My pleasure.

Niaz: Big Data has become a talked topic in these days. A very tight hype about Big Data is going on over tech industry. Big Data means ‘Making sense of the New World’ to many people.  Can you please tell us about this ‘New World’? What has actually changed? And what does ‘Making Sense of New World’ mean?

Viktor: What’s changed is that in the past, we weren’t able to apply to data to help our decision-making since the cost of collection, storage and analysis was so high. But as those barriers have fallen, we are not able to harness lots of data — and when we do, we can unlock new insights from it.  Take predictive maintenance. We didn’t know when an engine part would break before it did in the past. Now, looking at lots of sensor data like sound, heat and vibrations – from tens of thousands of vehicles, through big data analysis companies can spot that a part is likely going to break in the near future, and change it before it actually breaks. That’s new. It’s a new way of interacting with the world in a more empirical, quantified way. And it’s because of the data.

Niaz: How do you define the term Big Data?

Viktor: We resist giving a concrete definition since that would limit it. But basically, it refers to the idea that we have so much more information these days that we can apply new techniques to it, to spot useful insights or unlock new forms of economic value. There are things we can do with a large body of data that we simply couldn’t when it was in smaller amounts. In our book, we identify three features: more, messy and correlations.

Niaz: What is Data Science?

Viktor: The idea is that a new profession that has emerged in recent years, that combines the skills of the statistician, software developer, infographics designer and storyteller. Instead of peering into a microscope to discover the mysteries of the world, the data scientist looks into massive databases to uncover a finding. That said, since it’s a new job title, what it means will surely change over time.

Niaz: What is more important: Big Data vs. Data Science?

Viktor: The two are not at all at odds with each other. Big data is when there is vastly more data available relative to the phenomenon or question to be investigated than before; when we are accepting of some level of messiness of the data; and when we are using big data correlations to tease out the “what” rather than aiming to understand the “why”. The data scientists work with data, sometimes but not necessarily always “big data,” to analyze the information and extract meaning from it.

Niaz: Who is a Data Scientist?

Viktor: These are people who serve a useful interface between the hard-to-understand data, and the people who need to understand and make decisions from it.

Niaz: Do you think Data Scientists Job is the sexiest job in 21st Century?

Viktor: There are lots of sexy jobs in the 21st century. A data scientist is just one. Statisticians, machine-learning expert are others.

Niaz: What are the educational backgrounds, trainings, skills and expertise that someone needs to become a Data Scientist?

Viktor: The data scientist will need a multidisciplinary background that spans math and statistics, to computer science, design and the humanities. This is because one needs to be fluent in the language of data — how to run regression models and double-tailed T tests. But also possess coding skills to write programs to scrap data, clean data, or simply collect data. Then, one needs to eye of a designer to present the data visually. And storytelling skills to have the data reveal a narrative. Finally, one needs a deep sense of humanity — to ensure we are not beguiled by data’s false charms, and we keep our common sense amid the spreadsheets.

Niaz: You along with Kenneth Cukier have published a book ‘Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think’ which has already become a best seller. Can you please give us a brief on your impressive book?

Viktor: In “Big Data” we aim to go beyond the big data hype, and explain why big data represents a paradigmatic shift in how we understand and make sense of the world. We suggest that three qualities characterize big data: more, messy and correlations (see above), and that big data analysis is founded on our ability to datafy the world – that is to render more and more aspects of the world into data format that then can be calculated and analyzed. We look at the value of data – and the importance of secondary uses, as well as the emerging big data value chain. We explain who will be winning and who will be losing in the big data era. But not everything is rosy. We talk in detail about big data’s dark sides – from its challenge to privacy to the threat of punishment by propensity. We suggest concrete safeguards to ensure that the dark sides of big data remain contained, including suggesting the need for a new cadre of professionals – the “algorithmists” – that will help protect us against big data abuse. We end with a cautionary chapter about the importance of the human element in a world of big data.

Niaz: After publishing the book, Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think, you have been speaking, engaging with readers and getting feedback. Now what are your new findings?

Viktor: It’s still the first inning — it’s still round one for big data. So before we think about what’s next, we need to get the word out about how transformational this will be. That said, every day brings new case studies of how companies and organizations are unlocking new value by harnessing information in new ways.

Niaz: Now Big Data is becoming an integral part of the organizations. Organization has started to hire Data Scientists having a strong belief that Big Data means Big Opportunity. Do you think Big Data means Big Opportunity?

Viktor: Absolutely. For those with the right mindset, data offers huge opportunities. There is a gold rush under way – as people, companies and society realize that most of data’s value remains to be uncovered.

Niaz: What is the dark side of Big Data?

Viktor: In the book we look multiple dark sides. In addition to privacy, we are particularly concerned about propensity – the use of big data analysis to hold individuals responsible for acts they are only predicted to commit. That we fear negates human volition – our ability to decide freely whether and when to act. Punishing people for predicted rather than actual behavior is undoing the notion of justice in our society.

Niaz: How to overcome this dark side?

Viktor: On privacy we suggest we need a significant adjustment in the way we protect it from big data surveillance, so that big data benefits can be reaped without making a mockery of individuals’ justified privacy concerns. But we also suggest that in the era of big data we need to broaden our understanding of justice – and what it entails.

Niaz: As you know Poverty has been ruling the world for centuries. Billions of people have been living hand to mouth and suffering from lack of nutrition, lack of education, lack of sanitation, lack of food etc.. There are hundreds of social organizations those who have been working with poverty and social problems. At the end of the day, these social organizations are unable to measure the changes they have made. Or we could say, they might fail to bring sustainable changes though billions of dollars have been invested by donors and other sources. But these poor people have been suffering and living almost the same life for decades after decades. Now can you please tell us how Big Data can be a help to analyze, map, measure and formulate the problems of poor people?

Viktor: Yes. There are two problems with measuring the plight of the poor in a small data age: it costs a lot of time and money to collect data about them, and it is hard and costly to analyze that data. In the big data age, we can use data that is collected for other purposes – say micropayments through mobile phones – and reuse it to better understand the economy of poverty. And because big data analysis is relatively cheap, and no longer requires huge upfront investments in processing and storage infrastructure, sophisticated big data analysis can be undertaken by a handful of people working for instance for a civil society organization.

Niaz: Do you think we can design and program solutions of our social problems with the help of Big Data analysis?

Viktor: Big data can provide us with a much better sense of what policy areas need to be addressed first, and what results our policy decisions might produce. But at the end of the day, machines cannot take decisions, humans do. And so whether or not we find solutions to our social problems depends not on big data, but on human empathy and resolve.

Niaz: Please tell us about how Big Data can be a great help to measure the changes that social organizations bring?

Viktor: Social organizations often do good things, but their impact is hard to measure – in part because in a small data world collecting such information was very costly. In the age of big data that may change, and thus give social organizations perhaps for the first time a chance to analyze and see how well they are doing, and where. That helps these organizations to learn and evolve, and to improve their impact.

Niaz: Can you please suggest us ways of changing this world with the rigorous use of technology and innovation to solve our social problems to make this mother earth a better place to live in?

Viktor: Take medicine: Today we are using medication developed for the average person, rather than customized for a particular individual. This means that today we over- and under-medicate. As a result billions are wasted, and people are suffering. Big data provides us with the ability to change this – so that we can treat illnesses on an individual level, and learn. It increases effectiveness, but more importantly it improves lives. But for that to happen we need to be able to collect and use the data.

Niaz: Viktor, thank you so much for your time and for all of these impressive ideas.

Viktor: You’re most welcome Niaz.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. James Kobielus on Big Data, Cognitive Computing and Future of Product

2. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

3. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

4. Brian Keegan on Big Data

5. danah boyd on Future of Technology and Social Media

6. Irving Wladawsky-Berger on Evolution of Technology and Innovation

7. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

8. James Allworth on Disruptive Innovation

Juliana Rotich: Social Entrepreneurial Innovation

Editor’s Note: Juliana Rotich is the Co-Founder and Executive Director of Ushahidi Inc, a non-profit tech company. She has worked in the telecommunications and data warehousing industry for over ten years. She is a Technologist, African Futurist and TED Senior Fellow. She was named one of the Top 100 women by the Guardian newspaper and top 2 women in Technology 2011, andSocial Entrepreneur of the year 2011 by The World Economic Forum. Currently she has selected as a Director’s Fellow at MIT Media Lab. You can read her full bio from here, hereand here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Juliana Rotich recently to gain her ideas and insights on Social Entrepreneurial Innovation which is given below.

Niaz: Juliana, we are thrilled and honored to have you at eTalks.

Juliana: Thanks for having me Niaz.

Niaz: You are a Social Entrepreneurial Innovator. Can you please tell us about ‘Social Entrepreneurial Innovation? How can social entrepreneurial innovation change the world?

Juliana: Social Entrepreneurial Innovation refers to entrepreneurs that create and establish resourceful and inspired ways of dealing with social problems. The core of this kind of entrepreneurship is skillfully and systematically acting, doing things in new ways to solve increasingly persistent modern challenges like poverty, health or education to have the greatest social impact. “Innovation is itself invariably a cumulative collaborative activity in which ideas are shared, tested refined, developed and applied.”  Bill gates called this creative capitalism – our ability to stretch market forces and make them work better for the poor and reduce the great inequalities that exist in modern society. For the world, it is practically the emergence of a social conscious geared both at turning profits but improving lives, incomes and turning all people in to productive beings where their inert behavior includes building their community to be a better place.

Niaz: You are the co-founder and executive director of ‘Ushahidi’. Those who don’t know about this amazing social revolution, can you briefly tell about ‘Ushahidi’?

Juliana: “Ushahidi”, which means “testimony” in Swahili, began as website set up by a collaboration of Kenyan citizen journalists, bloggers and the tech community during the post-election crisis in Kenya at the beginning of 2008. The Site Mapped incidents of violence and peace efforts throughout the country based on reports submitted via the web and mobile phones. Its Success which gathered 45,000 users in Kenya – catalyzed the realization amongst its developers that the platform had potential beyond Kenya’s borders and have relevance and use for others around the world. Ushahidi is now a non-profit technology and data company. Ushahidi creates platforms which provide services, tools and strategies for Crowdsourcing and data flow management. We focus on bottom up systems with a vibrant global community of mappers and an ecosystem of open source experts. Ushahidi demonstrates how free and open source software enables organizations and communities to improve collection of data, contextualizing issues they care about and create effective information flow of stories and engagement into localized action and change. We catalyze initiatives and communities like The CrisisMappers group, the iHub in Kenya and support many others who are trying to change the world through technology.

Niaz: What is your vision at ‘Ushahidi’?

Juliana: At Ushahidi, we want people to truly be able to collaborate and change the status quo of where they are through collaborative problem solving.  With our tools we want, individuals, groups, & organizations to be fully able to participate in their democracy, and to have their voices heard. Empowering citizens to collect and contextualize information and change the way information flows in the world by making easy to use crowdsourcing tools that provide change agents globally. Ushahidi’s mission is to change the way information flows in the world.

Niaz: As a technologist you have been working to bring social revolution in the field of social work with the art of technology. Why do you think technology is a surprising tool to solve our social problems?

Juliana: I actually think technology is a natural tool to solve our social problems. In the book What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly, defines The Technium – “We all realize that we’re kind of surrounded with technology: there’s little device here recording us, there’s tables, chairs, spoons, light bulbs. Each of these things seem pretty mechanical, pretty inert in a certain sense, not very interactive, you know, a hammer, roads. But each one of these technologies actually requires many other technologies to make and produce. So your little thing in your pocket that you use for a phone might require thousands of other technologies to create it and support it and keep it going, and each of those technologies may require hundreds of thousands of subtechnologies below it. And that network of different technologies and the co-dependency that each of those technologies have on each other forms a virtual organism, a super organism.  We can keep stepping back and realize that all these technologies are in some ways co-dependent and related and connected to each other in some way and that largest of all the networks of all these technologies together I call the Technium.”  Social problems are often ecosystem problems, and appropriate, creative use of technology is just what may help to accelerate the problem solving that is much needed for the world’s problems. Technology helps to make systems more efficient, helps to close feedback loops and to inform. I think of technology as a catalyst for change and innovation representing immense untapped opportunities just waiting to be built and utilized. What brings it all together is an ecosystem of people and technology. In my generation I have seen how African people have interacted with mobile phones, computers and how increased connectivity to the Internet across the continent has helped spur Trickle Up Innovation to address social problems. Ushahidi is an example of this as is Mpesa, apps like iCow, Mfarm and Tusaidiane are emerging as part of the growth of tech entrepreneurial culture coming out in Africa and its collaborations globally.

Niaz: As you know, we have hundreds of thousands of social organizations those who have been working to bringing sustainable social changes. Most of these organizations have been lacking behind to accept the blessing of technology and innovation. What are the core challenges for them?

Juliana: The origin of not for profit organizations and their leadership at times represent the greatest challenges to technological innovations for social change and by that it takes much longer for them to develop the tools or procure the right personnel to develop the tools in house with a clear vision. We are lucky as Ushahidi that our founding and core is based on a group of developers, tech savvy change makers, bloggers, human rights activist, that bring their A game to the table in the different fields they have mastered. Our organization, leadership, commitment, culture, and mentorship in the cause has enable us to be particularly responsive.  With time and the greater adoption and exposure to technology nonprofits are picking up the pace in this area.

Niaz: How to recover those challenges to bring sustainable changes in the society with technology and innovation?

Juliana: It is not easy but can be achieved by attracting good talent. I would like to add this Harvard Business Review Article here.

Niaz: On the other hand, non profits are highly dependent on donors. Do you think technological innovation can provide them a platform to overcome this dependency and to empower them with financial independence to work to change the world to make it a better place to live in?

Juliana: It is possible. At Ushahidi, we have an external projects team that is ostensibly in charge of completing projects that bring in additional money. With our cloud based Services Crowdmap and SwiftRiver, we are diversifying the revenue base and thus on a sustainability track. It also helps to have impact investors like Omidyar Network who are not just donors, but partners in realizing the greater social and economic impact through not-for-profit technology work.

Niaz: Do you think we can bring technology and innovation rigorously for bringing social change, for removing poverty? How?

Juliana: If you had asked me this question last year, I would not have had an answer for you. This year, I can certainly say it is possible. I met Martin Burt in Davos early this year. I was completely encouraged and inspired by his work in Paraguay, he is doing extensive poverty mapping with the goal of giving the government clear data on where the critical areas are for interventions that can help lift people out of poverty. That his organization is using Ushahidi software is only a small part, the important work of linking on-the-ground data with policy is nothing short of amazing.

Niaz: Congratulation on being selected as a TED Senior Fellow. How you’re involved with TED now. What are your plans with TED?

Juliana: In 2007, I was selected as part of the inaugural class of TED Fellows. There I met other technologists, particularly Erik Hersman, whom I had collaborated with online with the AfriGadget website. I also met Ory Okolloh, Dr. Sheila Ochugboju, Mulumba Lwatula and Segeni Ngethe just to name a few.  More on what I wrote then about TED. In 2009 I was named a TED Fellow again because of our work with Ushahidi and the Technology ecosystem in Kenya. This was great, as I was not only able to enjoy the conference (It is an amazing brain spa) but to meet other amazing individuals who would collaborate with Ushahidi and iHub over the years. The network and support from the TED team, from Chris Anderson, June Cohen and Tom Rielly made Ushahidi a household name spoken in tandem with the likes of Wikipedia and Twitter. Moreso the friendships forged as part of the TED community continue to this day and make up a very important part of my life. To meet other technologists who do not fit neatly into one box was completely refreshing. It is like meeting a long lost ‘soul sister’ or rather in this case ‘brain sister’. The community is extraordinary.

Niaz: You were named one of the Top 100 women by the Guardian newspaper and top 2 women in Technology 2011, and Social Entrepreneur of the year 2011 by The World Economic Forum.  What are the set of advice you want to give to young social entrepreneurs? 

Juliana: Find a way to serve people through your work. The rest is hard work and persistence. The core is service and community. Keep the core strong and be flexible enough to handle the flux.

Niaz: How do you inspire women to come forward and lead?

Juliana: Inspiration comes in many ways. For me, it came from my late grandmother and my late father. They lived their lives making things. They taught me to first and foremost be a maker, to fix whatever is broken with whatever resources available. When you are needed, to stand up and do what you can. I hope that women can look around and find inspiration that works for them.

Niaz: Recently you have become ‘MIT Media Lab Directors Fellow’. It’s the finest place of innovation. Now you are bringing social problems and ideas at MIT Media Lab. What are we going to see in recent future with your ideas  for social change and Medial Lab’s innovation?

Juliana: I am so honored and thankful for the MIT Media Lab Director’s Fellowship. It is indeed the finest place for innovation. I often tell people that there are two places I feel most at home. The first is the iHub in Nairobi, a great space started by the Ushahidi team, led and grown by Erik Hersman. The second place is the MIT Media Lab. It is indeed Nerdvana as I like to call it. I am most excited about learning from the different research groups at MIT and linking them back to creative and innovative centers in Africa. There are incredible artists and innovators in Africa who are affiliated with emerging spaces like iHub, BongoHive, CCHub and others who would greatly benefit with that interchange of ideas, solutions, and approaches.  I suggest to read more from here and here. I am yet to fully grasp what I will do with the Media Lab fellowship, but one thing is that it will be in service of the amazing entrepreneurs I have the privilege of interacting with at the iHub in Nairobi and other parts of Africa.

Niaz: Juliana, thank you so much for sharing us your invaluable ideas and for your time.

Juliana: You are welcome Niaz.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Stephen Walt on Global Development

2. Jillian C. York on Freedom of Expression, Social Media and Nonprofits

3. Shaka Senghor on Writing My Wrongs

4. Ovick Alam on BridgeWee

5. Shaba Binte Amin on Poverty Fighter Foundation

Hugh Mac­Leod: Creativity and Art

Editor’s Note: Hugh Mac­Leod is one of the leading authorities on the creative process. He is the author of  ‘Ignore Everybody and 39 Other Keys to Creativity’, Evil Plans: Having Fun on the Road to World Domination’ and Freedom Is Blogging in Your Underwear.  He is about to publish his new book ‘The Art Of Not Sucking’. He is a cartoonist, entrepreneur, technologist, speaker and professional blogger, known for his ideas about how ‘Web 2.0′ affects advertising and marketing. After a decade of working as an advertising copywriter, Hugh started blogging at gapingvoid.com in 2001. You can read his full bio from here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Hugh Mac­Leod recently to gain his ideas and insights about creativity and art which is given below.

Niaz: Hugh, I know you as a Cartoonist, Best Selling Author, Public Speaker, Entrepreneur, Technologist, Blogger, Marketer and this list goes on and on and on. What do you think about your best identity?

Hugh: Cartoonist! I am a Cartoonist.

Niaz: But you are doing a vast array of activities. Why do you think being Cartoonist is your best identity?

Hugh: Well there is no point of being a billionaire if you don’t feel it. Being cartoonist is the thing I can be from my inner soul and cartoon is the thing I can do my own where everything else is just the tools that you need to interface with the world. They come like the delivery mechanism.

Niaz: As a cartoonist what is your vision?

Hugh: My world vision is to make people think differently about office art. I want to transform the world of business art. From my personal view, I want to make better and faster cartoons.

Niaz: So you are creating art. Changing minds. Telling a long story with impressive creative art by using only few words. Integrating complexity and problems to provide easy solution via your cartoon, sometimes via your art and sometimes via telling an excellent story. So what do you think about the significance of creating art now?

Hugh: I don’t think that there is any difference of creating art now then which was thousands years ago. Art is the reflection of our inner soul, our beliefs and the fact that we love from our heart. I think creating art means showing the world that we are not alone. I don’t know what Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan sang. I don’t understand whatever language he did speak. But you know there is a spiritual dynamic to his work that connects you somehow. You go and look Ancient Art, Native American Art, Chinese Art, Hindu Art or whatever; you will find the spiritual dynamics that connect you genuinely. So when you ask, why should we make art, you should have asked ‘why should we pray’ and then you should have asked ‘why should you believe in god’.  Creating art is always significant. It doesn’t belong to any time dimension. It’s innocent. It’s the true connection.

Niaz: You are a great marketer. You have been working with all big corporations and helping them for getting things done. Now, what does the term marketing mean to you?

Hugh: Well marketing to me, is the art, science and everything. Marketing is associated with all of the things that you need to get your idea spread.

Niaz: What do you think about the core problems of marketing?

Hugh: I think the core problems are marketing is very selfish, marketing is very loud, marketing is ill-mannered, marketing is wasteful and marketing is all kind of horrible things.

Niaz: So what are your ideas about how ‘Web 2.0’ affects advertising and marketing in this connected digital economy?

Hugh: Well from my perspective, it takes a way to need to scale. For example when I was a kid, when I was in your age, self publishing was so hard and expensive as there was no internet. So the way to be successful was hardest. Your cartoon had to be discovered by the Magazine, Newspaper, TV Shows or something like that. You had to get the approval of the record company. What I figured out a while ago, how much I need for living? I just need paying my bills. I have figured out, if I have 10,000 people who will give me money whether to buy t-shirt, cartoon, book, print or painting, I can make a living. And so to me, finding these 10,000 people using the Blog, Twitter or Facebook is cheaper, faster and easier that we couldn’t do before that. For example, in the old days, you ran a cartoon in the magazine. Then you had to wait until a person saw your cartoon in the book shop or saw your add that you pay at the back of the magazine and tell someone. It would also need a lot of peers. You had to wait for other people to tell your stories. So you had some other things beyond your own control. Now internet has made this business model for a cartoonist that is cheaper, better and faster. As a result our advertising and marketing has been changing revolutionary.

Niaz: You have been creating Social Objects. Can you please tell me about ‘Social Objects’?

Hugh:  The Social Object, in a nutshell, is the rea­son two peo­ple are tal­king to each other, as oppo­sed to tal­king to some­body else. Human beings are social ani­mals. We like to socia­lize. But if you think about it, there needs to be a rea­son for it to hap­pen in the first place. That rea­son, that ‘node’ in the social net­work, is what we call the Social Object.

Niaz: Can you please give an example of ‘Social Object’?

Hugh: Oh there are so many. Social object is something that is cool. When people mean cool, they mean it only because it is social object. Cool doesn’t reside in products. It resides in the interactions. Once Nokia Phone was cool. Now the social dynamics has changed. So it’s no longer social objects. I would say, it’s not social object because it is cool. It is cool because it’s social object. I love Bangladeshi Cooking. I love Seth Godin. I love Beatles. All of these are social objects.

Niaz: I first came to know about your impressive creative arts at the beginning of 2006 via your most popular manifesto ‘How to be creative’.  Till now, it’s the most popular manifesto of ChangeThis.com. Why do you think creativity is so much important of doing and making things happen?

Hugh: Well that’s how we are designed to survive. You know we aren’t cockroaches, tigers, or elephant. We have our brains. And our brain is genetically designed to figure out how to hack the world. If you look at our species, our ability to evolve, survive and dominant the world is all about creativity. It’s a biological spiritual necessarily. God made us creative. And it’s our nature.

Niaz: Can you please explain the title of your book ‘Ignore Everybody’?

Hugh: Well this isn’t saying to ignore everybody from the day you born to the day you die. I think there is a trouble to ignore everybody. What I mean is that nobody can tell you whether you’re idea is any good or not, especially in the beginning. All you can do is soldier on alone…. ignoring everybody.

Niaz: What are the secrets of being creative? Can you please tell us some points on being creative and asking interesting questions?

Hugh: You already are. You already born that way. Keep it simple. Keep it cheap. Keep it consistent. Practice. I think you could be loaded up with complexity and problems. But keep patience. Keep trying. Grow up your stamina.

Niaz: Hugh, Thank you so much for your time. I am wishing you very good luck for all of your impressive works.

Hugh: You are welcome Niaz. Thanks for having. Good luck to all of your ideas and endeavors.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

01. Philip Kotler on Marketing for Better World

02. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

03. Daniel Pink on To Sell is Human

04. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

05. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

06. Jeff Haden on Pursuing Excellence

07. Rita McGrath on Strategy in Volatile and Uncertain Environments

08. Gautam Mukunda on Leadership

Trond A. Undheim: Entrepreneurship and Social Change

Editor’s Note: Trond A. Undheim, Ph.D.,  has over fifteen years of multi sector experience in strategy, policy, communications, academia, and entrepreneurship. Currently, he is a Senior Lecturer at MIT Sloan School of Management. Formerly, he was a Director of Standards Strategy and Policy at Oracle Corporation, with wide responsibilities in long-term business development, strategy, public policy and standardization globally and in Europe. Trond is an executive, speaker, entrepreneur, author, traveler and blogger. You can read his full bio from here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Trond A. Undheim recently to gain insights about Entrepreneurship and Social Change which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Trond, thank you so much for your time in the midst of your busy schedule. We are honored to have you at eTalks. You teach Global Economics and Management as a Senior Lecturer at MIT Sloan School of Management. You are a leading expert on strategy, technology policy, entrepreneurship and the role of technology in society. At the beginning of our interview can you please tell us about entrepreneurship?

Trond: Entrepreneurship is to see, seize and share an opportunity to change something for the better in a lasting, institutional way, by creating a company, entity, program or initiative which provides services, generates products or makes concepts that can be traded or enjoyed by many. That was a mouthful, I guess: entrepreneurship is about embracing risk, change, and convincing people—this is sometimes hard.

Niaz: What is the significance of entrepreneurship in global economy?

Trond: As the trading of physical commodities gradually shrinks, entrepreneurship is about to become the only valuable commodity in the global economy. The reason is—it is all about flexibility. All sources of comparative advantage are temporary. The time window for innovation is arguably getting somewhat shorter every minute. This being said, entrepreneurship takes many forms. It is not just about startups, and the culture of entrepreneurship is different in each country. In my work with Global Entrepreneurship Lab (G-Lab), at MIT Sloan School of Management, I have found that even as emerging markets are at different stages of development and each have their own culture, the desire to innovate is the same among young entrepreneurs everywhere. All they want and need is to see good examples in front of them. Our student teams help out with getting quicker through the process, escalating change throughout society. But it starts one-on-one. It must build up. So, as significant as entrepreneurship might be, it is a slow force.

Niaz: How are technology, innovation and entrepreneurship integrated with each other? How can this integration be a help for the global economy?

Trond: There is entrepreneurship without technology but it is less effective. There is technology without entrepreneurship but it is futile and short lived. There is innovation wherever there are people connecting the dots between entrepreneurship and technology.  Without integrating the three, there will be no global economy, only elite pockets of internationalization.

Niaz: Do you think technology, innovation and entrepreneurship could be the solution to Poverty? How?

Trond: Despite new solar cooking devices, peer lending schemes, or cell phone empowered social movements, there is no single solution to poverty. For too long, technology has been thought of as a panacea that solves all problems, but we are far from it. Technology opens certain opportunities and forecloses others. Moreover, even though it initially may seem technology transforms opportunities for everyone, it usually, in the end favors the established elite or those who have resources to take the most advantage of it. This is the reason there are still problems everywhere we look around us, despite what many call ‘technological progress’, ‘information age’ or ‘globalization’.

We have increased the differences between people, and hence the opportunity both to succeed and to fail, spectacularly. Herein lies the challenge of integration; the globally economy theoretically connects things, but someone needs to establish those connections and re-establish connections when broken. Innovative initiatives that mobilize people, share information, gather knowledge, discuss best practices, or create marketplaces of ideas, products and services across boundaries of time, place, resources, and ability, will definitely contribute to the poverty issue in various ways. However, the issue is too complex for one strain of innovation to transform it all. Change needs to trickle down. Change needs to spread out. Change needs to bubble up. Poverty is clearly a multi-faceted problem that will fascinate, frustrate and motivate smart people, organizations and institutions to act for decades to come.

Niaz: Throughout history, high tech industries mostly belong to developed countries. As a result, under developed and developing countries alike have lagged behind. Can you please suggest us some ways to help those countries to come up with proper strategies to get involved with high tech industry to contribute to the global economy?

Trond: High tech industries are fostered by individual initiative, investors who are willing to take risks, and by a willingness to go to or even create markets where there yet are none. However, as small ecosystems of high tech entrepreneurship start forming even in countries that are not yet on the radar as emerging economies, each time, it gets easier. The challenge is to get enough launch momentum. Typically, what we see is that entrepreneurs, given such challenges, either are funded from outside the country by particularly risk prone or long perspective persons or institutions, or are a result of family money. Only in a few cases will angel investors emerge on their own, since they typically are former high tech entrepreneurs themselves. One strategy is for government incentives to stabilize and attract expats back to contribute. Another is to focus attention on particular locations around a strong university. A third is to build the products at home but use the born global concept to immediately try to act on the global market, or more realistically, one selected foreign market.

Niaz: You worked at Oracle Corporation as the director of standards strategy and policy, where you lead global business development, drove standardization, and influenced government policy in the EU. What do you think about the core challenges of entrepreneurs of third world countries have in order to come up with great ideas to build global technological business as well as to contribute in global economy?

Trond: The core challenge is to acquire the right set of skills and grasp the attention of funders and potential customers early enough, and before your money (and motivation) run out.  Moreover, another tough challenge is to convince the establishment that ideas matter, which means people around the entrepreneur—the first clients and investors must not just nod to existing power structures. They may need to be prepared to accept causing a bit of a stir. Entrepreneurship is a dangerous force to those not prepared to change or to those with vested interests to defend, such as established ways of doing things, monopoly markets, successful products, or healthy revenue streams that may be threatened by a new entrant, however small.

In terms of standardization, entrepreneurs should keep in mind that one thing is to have a novel idea, but a whole other thing is to be able to enact infrastructure change across a whole new market. To do that, you need to think in terms of standards, following standards, shaping standards, creating new standards that people will go along with. It is a negotiation game. You either join or try to create an ecosystem and then try to make it surround you and your customers. You cannot go it alone. Even Oracle learned that, early on, as that company was a startup facing the giant IBM. Oracle picked up the importance of having a database standard and built a great product around it. Look at where it is today. Larry Ellison can create a Japanese lake in California, own luxurious boats, and buy a Hawaiian island. Not a bad life to some. But, frankly, I think entrepreneurship is about much more than the money you create. It is about the relationships you build and the pride you get out of creating something new and at the same time something lasting.

Niaz: How to overcome those challenges?

Trond: I think the best way to overcome such challenges is to enlist team members who have experience from abroad. That way, you can bring change along with you. The other thing is to align with the forces for change within the country. You cannot turn everyone, but you actually only need to turn one-by-one. Every entrepreneur has heard this, and everyone knows what it means: be prepared not to take no for an answer. Beyond that, you need to find something that is actually doable. There are many good ideas out there but not all are doable. Doable for you, that is, in your situation. Make sure you have a good story. Storytelling can overcome most challenges. Even dictators, monopolists, and old money love a good story.

Niaz: You have also served as the national expert of e-government in the European Commission, where you created ePractice.eu, the world’s most successful best practice initiative in e-government, e-health, and e-inclusion. Can you please give as a brief of these terms: e-government, e-health, and e-inclusion?

Trond: E-government is when public services are reorganized and ideally improved or made cheaper or more convenient using ICT, although that is a tall order. E-health applies ICT to citizen/patient interaction, health-service providers, institution-to-institution transmission of data, or all of the above. E-inclusion aims at reducing gaps in ICT usage in order to improve economic performance, employment opportunities, quality of life, social participation, and cohesion.

Niaz: What is the response to the ePractice.eu initiative? What are the significant changes that have occurred because ePractice.eu?

Trond: ePractice.eu blends online and offline interaction on good practices in using ICT for services of public interest. It brings a varied set of around 100,000 stakeholders together, government policy makers, consultants, the ICT industry, NGOs etc. So far, it contains 1626 self –submitted cases from 35 countries around the world, For the EU, it has radically improved information and knowledge sharing. It has achieved significant momentum. Joining the community has tangible value, people attend workshops, contribute views, share, and learn. It is a true knowledge community, virtual and physical.

Niaz: What are the steps could be taken by the policy makers of third world country to get the maximum benefits of e-government, e-health, and e-inclusion?

Trond: As the UN e-government survey reveals each year, there are indeed gaps between nations’ internet readiness. This is unfortunate but something we all need to take into account. The issue is not just access to the internet, but what content is accessible once you are on the internet and which skills you have to make sure you can benefit and contribute. The challenge is multifaceted: education, training, specific skills, infrastructure, and content. Even the countries who have invested a lot of resources occasionally, some would say too often, get it wrong. This stuff is not simple. You need awareness across the supply and delivery chains.

Niaz: You have published your book ‘Leadership From Below’. Can you please give us a brief of ‘Leadership From Below’?

Trond: Leadership From Below, for me, is two things. A perspective on leadership: No need for a position in a hierarchy to have influence. A perspective on life: lead when you need.  There are many books out there right now tapping into the fact that the web seemingly has lowered barriers to lead. However, what I am saying is not that. There are still barriers. Technology is not really the point here, although it can help (and hurt). The point is to reconfigure the notion of what it actually means to lead. It simply has nothing to do with somebody giving you power from above (despite what those who elect the pope might think). True power can only emerge from below, from trusted relationships. Even God Almighty in Christendom was of the opinion that it was wiser to send his son Jesus to earth to convince people of the state of things than to simply tell them with a roar from above.  Even smart CEOs realize this. They know they are accountable to the Board, to shareholders, and to society at large (well, at least some CEOs think this way).

Leaders at all levels need to reflect upon what it takes to achieve real, lasting influence. Using force always has a cost. In fact, getting your way always has a cost, especially if it is recognized that you benefit from it. Instead, leaders need to embrace the somewhat slower, but surer process of involving peers in small-scale change efforts that have ripple effects across teams, organizations, and societies.

So, leadership from below is not simply a message to a new generation of leaders, or to small-scale leaders. It is the essence of true leadership. Leadership from below is not just a trend. In fact it is a stable feature of any society but it has recently become trendy. Oh, and one more thing, I did not write the book to say we should not accept any authority. My view is not anti-hierarchy, but a-hierarchical, or beyond hierarchies. I say: Follow when you can. Lead when you need.  Finally, since I wrote the book back in 2002, I have reflected a bit more and taken in some criticism, too. As it turns out, hierarchy remains systemic part of society. The reason is complexity. Things are getting complicated out there. The other is delegation. People love to delegate. Once you delegate, you give up power.

Niaz: What is the set of advice you would like to leave behind for technology geeks, innovators and entrepreneurs?

Trond: I wanted to leave a little piece of advice from my research on strategy failures in high tech entrepreneurship. First of all, it seems too few of us are willing to take a serious look at negative outcomes. This is unfortunate because there is a lot of learning to be had. But since those stories are often buried (although I am about to uncover some), every time you hear of a success story, try to find out what challenges have been overcome to get there. You will soon find that it is often those who have overcome the greatest challenges who succeed in the long term. Why, well, because they have also learned resilience.

If you want to learn more about this, follow my research on strategic outcomes in Cleantech firms. Essentially, we know that a lot of cleantech companies have failed over the last decade. There are many reasons why, but for the benefit of humanity, we need to ensure that some succeed and clean up our planet before it is too late. This is my agenda. It turns out both governments, multinationals, VCs, and entrepreneurs are interested in my work. We should indeed learn more from failure and we should talk about it. There is no shame in failing as long as you can reflect around how to do things different next time, or tell others about the perils of the unforeseeable unforeseen.

Niaz: Thank you so much for sharing us your ideas. I am wishing you good luck for all of your endeavors.

Trond: You are very welcome. It was a pleasure to speak with you, Niaz, and best of luck in your exciting entrepreneurial endeavor, eTalks. What a great concept: asking a set of great questions to people and change agents across the globe over email and letting them answer these questions on their own time without the pressure of a word limit or timeline. This is perhaps one of the keys to the future of communication: letting people speak. Sounds simple but it rarely happens.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

01. Philip Kotler on Marketing for Better World

02. Hugh Mac­Leod on Creativity and Art

03. Daniel Pink on To Sell is Human

04. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

05. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

06. Jeff Haden on Pursuing Excellence

07. Rita McGrath on Strategy in Volatile and Uncertain Environments

08. Gautam Mukunda on Leadership

09. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

Shaka Senghor: Writing My Wrongs

Editor’s Note: Shaka Senghor is a Director’s Fellow at MIT Media Lab. He is also a recipient of Knight Foundation’s BME Leadership Award. He is a writer, mentor, and motivational speaker whose story of redemption has inspired young adults at high schools and universities across the nation. You can read his full bio from here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Shaka Senghor recently to gain insights about his ideas, books and works which is given below.

Niaz: Shaka, Thank you so much for joining us.

Shaka: My pleasure.

Niaz: Congratulation on being selected as a Director’s Fellow of MIT Media Lab.

Shaka: Thanks so much Niaz.

Niaz: You are a writer, mentor, motivational speaker and role model of hundreds of youngsters.  Your fearless life has inspired so many minds. You have been a dedicated social activist. Now what are you doing at MIT Media Lab?

Shaka: As a Directors Fellow, I am currently working on the Atonement Project. It’s a collaboration between the Civic Media Lab, PCAP Prison Creative Arts Project and Mothers of Murdered Children. The project promotes healing between victims of violent crime, and bullying and those who perpetrate those offenses.

Niaz: Great. So what is your plan with MIT Media Lab?

Shaka: My plan with the MIT Media Lab is to expand the work I do as a mentor and a writer. I am looking forward to working with the Lab on a variety of projects that connect the resources and innovation of MIT Media Lab to people in communities who normally wouldn’t have access to the Lab.

Niaz: As far as I know you have an astonishing story. It is a story of redemption which has inspired young adults at high schools and universities across the nation. Can you please tell us about your story of redemption?

Shaka: My story of redemption grew in stages during my 19 years of incarceration. Early into my sentence, I was introduced to literature through an author name Donald Goines who was from my hometown in Detroit. After reading his work I began to read everyday and it was during this time I read The Autobiography of Malcolm-X which made me think about my life as being one worthy of redeeming. I did a lot of soul searching and journaling and worked through the baggage of my past. With each book I read, I learned something about my own humanity and felt like it was important for me to share what I was learning with young men and women in my community.

Niaz: You have published your new book ‘Writing My Wrongs’. What were the reasons behind writing ‘Writing My Wrongs’?

Shaka: The reason I decided to write ‘Writing My Wrongs is because I wanted to help young people who come from hard scrabble backgrounds. I also wanted to show people what causes young men and women to go from wanting to be doctors and lawyers to ending up in prison serving lengthy sentences. I take readers deep inside the violent filled Detroit streets through the eyes of a teenager who was abused as a child, taken advantage of by older hustlers and ultimately made the worst decision in the world-pulling the trigger. I also wanted people to understand the far-reaching implications of gun violence and post traumatic stress disorder, both of which are causing devastation in cities across the world.

Niaz: That’s really impressive. My readers will love to know about your book ‘Live in Peace: A Youth Guide to Turning Hurt into Hope’. Can you please give a brief summary of it?

Shaka: Live In Peace is a companion piece to a project I started called Live In Peace Digital and Literary Arts Project. After winning the Black Male Engagement leadership Award for work I do in my community I launched the project in two local high schools. The book is comprised of essays, short stories, chapters from my memoir and my poetry. Each chapter deals with some of the major problems we are dealing with in our community from gun violence and sexual abuse to teenage drug abuse and teen suicide.

Niaz: What is your motivation to motivate others?

Shaka: The students, my son and the youth I work with motivate me to work as hard as I can to make a difference. As a man and a father I want our youth to inherit a better world then the one we inherited and so I will continue to do my part as best I can.

Niaz: What have you learned from your fearless life?

Shaka: The thing I learned from my life is that no matter how hard or far you fall, you can always get up if you have the will and desire.

Niaz: As you know, the baby boomers generation is going to retire within couple of decades. Today’s youths are going to take the positions to lead the world. What are the set of advices you want to give to youths so that they can lead the world to make it a better place to live in?

Shaka:  The thing I share with the most with youth about the future is that there is nothing more important than the decisions they make in this moment in our time. They are the decision makers of tomorrow and they have to start working now to make life better for them and those coming behind them in the future. I also advice them to be conscious of the information they take in on a daily basis. When they have healthy thoughts they will make healthy life choices.

Niaz: Thanks so much for your valuable time.

Shaka: Thank you so much for having me.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Stephen Walt on Global Development

2. Juliana Rotich on Social Entrepreneurial Innovation

3. Jillian C. York on Freedom of Expression, Social Media and Nonprofits

4. Ovick Alam on BridgeWee

5. Shaba Binte Amin on Poverty Fighter Foundation

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: Evolution of Technology and Innovation

Editor’s Note: Dr. Irving Wladawsky-Berger retired from IBM on May 31, 2007 after 37 years with the company. As Chairman Emeritus, IBM Academy of Technology, he continues to participate in a number of IBM’s technical strategy and innovation initiatives. He is also Visiting Professor of Engineering Systems at MIT, where he is involved in multi-disciplinary research and teaching activities focused on how information technologies are helping transform business organizations and the institutions of society. You can read his full bio from here.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Irving Wladawsky-Berger recently to gain insights about the evolution of Technology and Innovation which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Irving, thank you so much for joining us.  We are thrilled and honored to have you for eTalks .

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: Niaz, thank you for having me.

Niaz: You began your career in IBM as a researcher in 1970. You have retired from IBM on May 31, 2007 as a Vice President of Technical Strategy and Innovation. From the dawn of Supercomputing to the rise of Linux and Open Source, the Internet, Cloud Computing, Disruptive Innovation, Big Data and Smarter Planet; you have been involved with it all.  You have worked for 37 years for bringing sustainable technological innovations for IBM. Can you please give us a brief of the evolution of technology and innovation? What do you think about the technological trend that has been changing since you have joined in IBM?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: Well,It has been changed radically since the time I started in 1970 until now, let say, after 30 years. At the time in 1970, there were no personal computers and needless to say there was no internet. Computers were expensive and people were able to use them in a time sharing mode. Usually you would be needed a contract to be able to operate a computer and it was relatively expensive at that time. So most of the innovation and research had to be done in a kind of big science lab environment, whether it’s at a university like MIT or an R&D lab in IBM. Now all that began to change when personal computers emerged in the 1980s and especially in the next decade in 1990s, because personal computers became much more powerful and much less expensive. And then we had the internet. Remember the internet was only really blocking to the world in the mid 90s. And all of a sudden, it was much easier for lots of people to have access to the proper technologies and to start doing all kind of entrepreneurial innovations. Before that it was very expensive and then with the internet they were able to distribute their offerings online directly to their customers. Previously, they needed distributor channels and it did cost a lot of money. That has changed even more in just the last few years because of the advent of Cloud Computing. People started to do entrepreneurial business. They don’t even need to buy computer equipment anymore. They have a laptop or a smart phone that they use to get access in the cloud. As a result the cost of operating business is getting lower. This is particularly important for emerging economy like India, Africa or Latin America. Because they don’t have that much access to capital as we do here in the United States. So the availability of the internet, cloud computing and mobile devices etc. is going to have a huge impact for entrepreneurialism especially in emerging economy.

Niaz: So what has surprised you most about the rise and spread of the internet over the past 15 years?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: Wellyouknowwhen I started, before the mid 90s, I was very involved with the Internet but as part of supercomputing before then the internet was primarily used in research lab and universities. And it all started to change with the advent of World Wide Web as well as Web Browser.  It made everything much more accessible. It was so easier to use. Before browsers, it was primarily interfaced that engineers had to learn to use. It wasn’t really available to the majority of people. The internet probably like other disruptive technologies; we knew it was exciting, we knew some good things could happen. But most of us couldn’t anticipate how transformative it would become. As an example, the fact that it would so much transform the media industry,  the music industry, newspapers, video streaming etc. On the other side, some of distinct people were predicting of the internet in the near term, like ‘it would totally transform the economy. You don’t need revenue and cash anymore’. That was wrong. So some of the predictions were just wrong, just like ‘you don’t need revenue and cash anymore’. Because if you are running a business you need revenue, cash and profit. Some of the predictions have been taking a lot longer than people thought in the early days because you needed broadband and things like that. And then other changes happened faster than any of us anticipated. In just an interesting experience, to watch how unpredictable disruptive technologies are.

Niaz: Now what do you think about the future of internet? What significant changes are going to occur in near future?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: First of all, I think broadband will keep advancing. And that’s being one of the most important changes. When I started using internet in the mid 90s, it was 16kb over a dial modem. Then few years later, it only went to 64kb over dial modem and then broadband came in. And it is getting better and better and better. Now in some countries, as you know, like South Korea, is extremely fast. And I think in US we don’t have that good broadband yet. But it is good to see it continues to be better.  Broadband wireless has come along. And that is very nice. I think the rise of mobile devices like Smart phones in the last few years, has the most important ways of accessing internet. And it has been an absolute phenomenon. And absolute phenomenon.  When the internet first showed off in the mid 90s, we were very worried that the internet was growing you needed to be able to have a PC and in those days time PCs were not that much inexpensive. You needed an internet service provider. That was not inexpensive either. So there was a strong digital divide even with the advanced economy like USA. I remember having a number of important meetings, while I was working in Washington in those days on the digital divide. All that had disappeared as you know mobile devices are so inexpensive. Just about everybody can afford it now.  But not all mobile devices are smart phones yet capable of accessing the internet. And I believe within few years, just about everybody in the world will be able to access the information, resource and application. That is going to be gigantic.  Finally, internet, broadband, cloud computing and disruptive innovations are going to bring changes that will be the most important change over the next few decades.

Niaz: As you know, Big Data has become a hot topic of tech industry. What do you think about Big Data?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: Big Data is very interesting. And what it means is that we now have access to huge amount of real time data that can be totally analyzed and interpreted to give deep insight. Now I am involved with a new initiative of New York University called Center for Urban Science and Progress. A lot of the promise is to gather lot of information about transportation, energy uses, health and lots of other real time information in the city and being able to use it effectively to better manage the city and to make it more efficient. So now, we have access to big amount of data. But being able to manage those data, being able to run experiments and being able to make sense of data, you need to model. You need a hypothesis that you embedded in a model. Then you test your model against your data to see your model is true or not. If your model is true then the prediction you are making is correct. And if your model is not true, the predictions you are making is incorrect. Like for an example, you can get lots of health care data. But for finding the meaning, using those data efficiently, you have to have a good model. So in my mind big data is very important but more important which I called Data Science. Data Science is the ability to write model to use the data and get inside from what the data is telling and then put it into practice. And the data science is very new even big data itself is very new.  I think that it shows tremendous promise but we now have to build the next layers of data science in the discipline and that will be done discipline by discipline.

Niaz: Over the past twenty years you have been involved in a number of initiatives dealing with disruptive innovations. What do you think about disruptive innovation?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: I think that the work of Clayton Christensen has been really excellent. People knew that there were disruptive technologies that may change but until Clay wrote his book Innovators Dilemma and I think his next book ‘Innovators Solution’ is even better. I use these books in the graduate course at MIT. These are two excellent books on innovation. People didn’t understand for example why it is so tough to manage disruptive innovation? How is it different from the regular sustaining innovation or incrementing innovation? What do the companies should do with sustaining or incrementing innovation vs. disruptive innovation? And so he framed it in an excellent way to show the differences and to provide the guidelines for companies what they should do and that what they should watch out for. I think he wrote ‘Innovators Dilemma’ around 1990s. Now even today, the reality is, many companies don’t appreciate how difficult it is to truly embrace disruptive innovation. If you go and ask companies about disruptive innovation, they would say they are doing disruptive innovation. But in reality they are just working with incrementing innovation.  But to really be embarrassing disruptive, it’s till culturally very difficult for many companies.

Niaz: What is cloud computing? What are the ideas behind cloud computing?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: There are many definitions of cloud computing. There is no one definition. I think the reason is that cloud computing is not any one thing. I think that it’s really a new model of computing where the internet is the platform for that computing model. If you look at the history of computing, in the first phase, we had the central computing model and the mainframes in the data center were the main platform of that model. That model lasted from the beginning of the computing industry until let say mid 80s. Then the client server model came.  And in the client server model, the PCs were the central platform of that model. Now cloud computing is a model and it’s totally organized around the internet and it’s totally organized to make it possible to access hardware resources, storage resources, middleware resources, application resources and services over the internet . So cloud computing, when you think about it, the actual computer is totally distributed over the internet in the cloud.  Finally cloud computing is the most interesting model of computing built totally around the internet.

Niaz: How much disruption does cloud computing represent when compared with the Internet?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: I think cloud is the evolution of the internet. I think cloud computing is a massive disruption. And it is a very big disruptive part of the internet, because it’s totally changing the way people can get access to application and to information. Instead of having them in your PC or in the computers in your firm, you can now easily get whatever you want from the cloud. And you can get it in much standardize ways. So cloud makes it much easier and much less expensive for everybody whether you are a big company or whether you are a small or medium size company or whether you are an individual to get access to very sophisticated applications. And you don’t have to know everything. Remember in the PC days, if you bought an application, you got a disk, you had to load it, then there were new versions and you had to manage those versions by yourself. It was such an advance way over the previous worlds. Everybody was happy. But it was very difficult to use. Cloud as you know the whole world of apps. If you need apps, you can go to apps store. And an app store is basically a cloud store. So you can easily get whatever you need from the app store. When an app has a new release it will tell you. You don’t have to know everything. You have to do anything. It all being engineered and that is making IT capabilities available to many more companies and people. So it’s very disruptive.

Niaz: What do you think about the future of startups which are competing with giants like IBM, Google, Amazon, Facebook?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: That’s the history of the industry. You know, in the 80s, people said how anybody competes with IBM as IBM is such a big and powerful company. And the few years later, IBM was almost died because client server computing came in and all these companies like Sun Microsystems, Microsoft, Compaq; they almost killed IBM. And locally for me who was there it didn’t die. Then in 90s, you could say, how can anybody compete with Microsoft after windows came up, it was so powerful, it was everything. Google was nothing at the beginning. And here we are now. Every few years we ask this question, here is the most powerful company of the world and what can possibly happen to them?  And you know sometimes nothing happens to them. And they continue being more powerful. Sometimes, in the case of IBM, they reinvent themselves. And they stay very relevant. They are just no longer the most advanced company in the world, they are an important company. But In 70s and 80s it was the leader in the computing industry. I think many people wouldn’t say about IBM now. For competing and surviving in any industry you have to have a very good business model. And for entrepreneurial innovation, coming up with a great business model is the hardest and core challenge.

Niaz: Can you please tell us something about the ways of asking BIG questions to challenge the tradition and come up with disruptive innovation?

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: Niaz, you are asking a very good question because asking big questions, coming with new business idea or business model is very difficult. I would say, in the old days, lot of the ideas came from laboratory if I talk about IT industry. Today, the core of innovation is in the market place. How can you come up with a great new application or a great new solution that will find a market that will find customers who want it. You have to be much focused. You have to have some good ideas. You have to study the market. You have to understand who are likely to be your customers. You have to know who your competitors are going to be. If those competitors are going to be big like Google, Microsoft, Facebook, you have to know, if you are starting a new company, what do you have unique over those companies. But I think that in general the inspiration or new ideas is a combination of creativity and market place. You have to look at the market place and have to be inspired by marketplace. Here are some great ideas you have and bring light. I think I couldn’t able to give good answer. You are asking like ‘Where the great business ideas come from’. It’s like asking movie directors or composers, where do you get your creativity. It’s a similar question. There is no good answer to that.

Niaz: Thank you Irving. I am wishing you very good luck for your good health and all future projects.

Irving Wladawsky-Berger: You are welcome. It was very nice talking to you. And good luck to you Niaz.

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Further Reading:

1. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger on Big Data Revolution

2. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

3. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

4. Brian Keegan on Big Data

5. danah boyd on Future of Technology and Social Media

6. James Allworth on Disruptive Innovation

7. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

Gautam Mukunda: Leadership

Editor’s Note: Gautam Mukunda is an Assistant Professor in the Organizational Behavior Unit of Harvard Business School.  He was the National Science Foundation Synthetic Biology ERC Postdoctoral Fellow resident at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Center for International Studies.  He received his PhD from MIT in Political Science and an A.B. in Government from Harvard, magna cum laude.  His research focuses on leadership, international relations, and the social and political implications of technological change.  His first book, “Indispensable: When Leaders Really Matter,” was published in September 2012 by Harvard Business Review Press.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Gautam Mukunda recently to gain his ideas and insights about Leadership which is given below.

Niaz: Dear Gautam, thank you so much for giving me time in the midst of your busy schedule. I believe we will be able to find some interesting facts about leadership today. You studied at Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  At the same time, you have been working with giant companies as well as advising nonprofit organizations. As an assistant professor, you have been teaching ‘Leadership’ at Harvard Business School. Recently you’ve published your book ‘Indispensable: When Leaders Really Matter’. At the very beginning of our interview, can you please tell us about how do you see ‘leaders’?

Gautam: You’re welcome. And I am happy to be here. So when I study leader, I study basically anyone with the possession of power in an organization. I would say about the people particularly at the top of the organization. By having their office and by being at the top of the organization, they are the leaders. So when I look at in my book and in my other research  about the question ‘When does it really matter who the person at the top of the organization is’ or ‘What is the circumstances when it’s important that it was this person and not one of the other people who might possibly have the job’.

Niaz: That’s really impressive. So how do you define leadership?

Gautam: I would say, in an essence, leadership is what leaders do. It could be anything. For my work, in some sense it doesn’t matter. So leadership is just anything leaders do as part of their job descriptions. More broadly in other people research, there is a distinction between leadership and management. Management is kind of the process of the organization and taking care of the certain things and leadership is more of the emotional side of the organization like inspiration, culture and that kind of things.

Niaz: I have read your book ‘Indispensable: When Leaders Really Matter’. But those who are not familiar with your book, can you please tell us briefly about your book?

Gautam: Sure. So my book proposes an explanation as to when the individual leaders really make a big difference in the behavior or performance of an organization. The book is essentially a way to answer this question ‘When an individual leader matters’ or more broadly to answer sort of traditional debating question ‘Individual leaders make history or it really about larger social forces or individual leaders don’t matter’.

Niaz: What are your new findings in your book?

Gautam: So my book says, in most of the time, leadership is all about larger social forces. Most of the time individual leaders don’t matters.  But sometimes under very clearly identifiable circumstances, individual leaders can matter a great deal.

Niaz: What is most significant: Nurturing Leadership for Years or  Hiring Rock Stars.

Gautam: So in general it is almost always better to nurture leadership for long term within the organization. The people who work within the organization are the people are well known to you. You understand them and know their performance. Organization that are successful for long periods of time, are successful in part because they consistently able to develop and nurture leadership within the organization. They don’t need outsider. The companies that are successful for long time always tend to bring insider. Even though they don’t get Steve Jobs but they never just get a complete failure.

Niaz: Suppose you have been in business for 20 years, how will you hire a CEO for your billion dollars company?

Gautam: So the first question I would want to ask is whether I want someone from inside of the company or from outside of the company. Because it’s very different such of things. If you want someone from inside of the company there is relatively low risk choice because s/he is someone you know very well. So if your company is doing well and it’s in pretty good shape, you probably want someone from inside of the company. But if your company struggling or there is a major change in the market or something happening that cause you to think about trouble and you don’t have any one inside of the company with right approach then you have to start looking outside of the company. And when you are doing that then there are a variety of things you have to think that I have described in my book. May be the most important thing is that you have to realize that in general there is little chance of getting someone who is good at all of the skills sets needed to lead the organization. People have different skills sets at the same time organizations need different skills sets. So, Instead of looking for the best leader, what you really need to look for the right leaders.

Niaz: What sort of advices do you have for youth in becoming successful leaders?

Gautam: I would say that the most consistently successful leaders are people who do have many qualities. May be the one hardest and you need to work deliberately to cultivate is they are intellectually open. They draw on resources, concepts and ideas from a wide variety of areas. And they are not only open to other sorts of ideas but also the possibilities  they might be wrong, and they think very seriously and very constructively about how to recognize when they are wrong and how to learn from their mistakes and what to do about it. If I were giving sort of advice to people who are trying to develop leadership skills and to become a leader I would say read broadly, think broadly, engage in a wide variety of activity and do it with a learning orientation.Do it as someone who is consciously thinking about what am I am learning here that tells me that these are the things I knew I believed, isn’t true.

Niaz: Finally, are leaders made by history, or do they make it?

Gautam: Yah!That’s of course the topic of my book. And the answer is most of the time leaders are made by history. But sometimes, when a leader gets power, who hasn’t been thoroughly evaluated by the system, before they get power, is a little bit of unknown or a little bit of a surprise that person has the potential to do things radically different that no one else would do. And those people can really make history.

Niaz: Thank you so much for your time. And all the best wishes for your all upcoming projects.

Gautam: You are welcome. Good luck to you Niaz.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Jeff Haden on Pursuing Excellence

2. Daniel Pink on To Sell is Human

3. Barry Schwartz on Wisdom and Happiness

4. Derek Sivers on  Entrepreneurship, CD Baby and Wood Egg

5. Peter Klein on Entrepreneurship, Economics and Education

6. Naeem Zafar on Entrepreneurship for the Better World

Brian Keegan: Big Data

Editor’s Note: Brian Keegan is a post-doctoral research fellow in Computational Social Science with David Lazer at Northeastern University. He defended his Ph.D. in the Media, Technology, and Society program at Northwestern University’s School of Communication.  He also attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and received bachelors degrees in Mechanical Engineering and Science, Technology, and Society in 2006.

His research employs a variety of large-scale behavioral data sets such as Wikipedia article revision histories, massively-multiplayer online game behavioral logs, and user interactions in a crowd-sourced T-shirt design community. He uses methods in network analysis, multilevel statistics, simulation, and content analysis. To learn more about him, please visit his official website Brianckeegan.com.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Brian Keegan recently to gain his ideas and insights about Big Data, Data Science and Analytics which is given below.

Niaz: Brian we are really excited to have you to talk about Big Data. Let start from the beginning. How do you define Big Data?

Brian: Thank you Niaz for having me. Well, a common joke in the community is that “big data” is anything that makes Excel crash. That’s neither fair to Microsoft because the dirty secret of data science is that you can get pretty far using Excel nor is it fair to researchers whose data could hypothetically fit in Excel, but are so complicated that it would make no sense to try in the first place.

Big data is distinct from traditional industry and academic approaches to data analysis because of what are called the three Vs: volume, variety, velocity.

      • Volume is what we think of immediately – server farms full of terabytes of user data waiting to be analyzed. This data doesn’t fit into a single machine’s memory, hard drive, or even a traditional database. The size of the data makes analyzing with traditional tools really hard which is why new tools are being created.
      • Second, there’s variety that reflects the fact that data aren’t just lists of numbers, but include complex social relationships, collections of text documents, and sensors. The scope of the data means that all these different kinds of data have different structures, granularity, and errors which need to be cleaned and integrated before you can start to look for relationships among them. Cleaning data is fundamentally unsexy and grueling work, but if you put garbage into a model, all you get garbage back out. Making sure all these diverse kinds of data are playing well with each other and the models you run on them is crucial.
      • Finally, there’s velocity that reflects the fact that data are not only being created in real-time, but people want to act on the incoming information in real time as well. This means the analysis also has to happen in real time which is quite different than the old days where a bunch of scientists could sit around for weeks testing different kinds of models on data collected months or years ago before writing a paper or report that takes still more months before its published. APIs, dashboards, and alerts are part of big data because they make data available fast.

Niaz: Can you please provide us some examples?

Brian: Data that is big is definitely not new. The US Census two centuries ago still required collecting and analyzing millions of data points collected by hand. Librarians and archivists have always struggled with how to organize, find, and share information on millions of physical documents like books and journals. Physicists have been grappling with big data for decades where the data is literally astronomical. Biologists sequencing the genome needed ways to manipulate and compare data involving billions of base pairs.

While “data that was big” existed before computers, the availability of cheap computation has accelerated and expanded our ability to collect, process, and analyze data that is big. So while we now think of things like tweets or financial transactions as “big data” because these industries have rushed to adopt or are completely dependent upon computation, it’s important to keep in mind that lots of big data exist outside of social media, finance, and e-commerce and that’s where a lot of opportunities and challenges still exist.

Niaz: What are some of the possible use cases for big data analytic? What are the major companies producing gigantic amount of Data?

Brian: Most people think of internet companies like Google, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, FourSquare, Netflix, Amazon, Yelp, Wikipedia, and OkCupid when they think of big data. These companies are definitely the pioneers of coming up with the algorithms, platforms, and other tools like PageRank, map-reduce, user-generated content, recommender systems that require combining millions of data points to provide fast and relevant content.

    • Companies like Crimson Hexagon mine Twitter and other social media streams for their clients to detect patterns of novel phrases or changes in the the sentiment associated with keywords and products. This can let their clients know if people are having problems with a product or if a new show is generating a lot of buzz despite mediocre ratings.
    • The financial industry uses big data not only for high-frequency trading based on combining signals from across the market, but also evaluating credit risks of customers by combining various data sets. Retailers like Target and WalMart have large analytics teams that examine consumer transactions for behavioral patterns so they know what products to feature. Telecommunications companies like AT&T or Verizon collect call data records produced by every cell phone on their networks that lets them know your location over time so they can improve coverage. Industrial companies like GE and Boeing put more and more sensors into their products so that they can monitor performance and anticipate maintenance.
    • Finally, one of the largest producers and consumers of big data is the government. Law enforcement agencies publish data about crime and intelligence agencies monitor communication data from suspects. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, Federal Reserve, and World Bank collect and publish extremely rich and useful economic time series data. Meteorologists collect and analyze large amounts of data to make weather forecasts.

Niaz: Why has big data become so important now?

Brian: Whether it was business, politics, or military, decisions were (and continue to be) made under uncertainty about history or context because getting timely and relevant data was basically impossible. Directors didn’t know what customers were saying about their product, politicians didn’t know the issues constituents were talking about, and officers faced a fog of war. Ways of getting data were often slow and/or suspect: for example, broadcast stations used to price advertising time by paying a few dozen people in a city to keep journals of what stations they remember hearing every day. Looking back now, this seems like an insane way not only collect data but also make decisions based on obviously unreliable data, but it’s how things were done for decades because there was no better way of measuring what people were doing. The behavioral traces we leave in tweets and receipts are not only much finer-grained and reliable, but also encompass a much larger and more representative sample of people and their behaviors.

Data lets decision makers know and respond to what the world really looks like instead of going on their gut. More data usually gives a more accurate view, but too much data can also overwhelm and wash out the signal with noise. The job of data scientists less trying to find a single needle in a haystack and more like collecting as much hay as possible to be sure there’s a few needles in there before sorting through the much bigger haystack. In other words, data might be collected for one goal, but it can also be repurposed for other goals and follow-on questions that come along to provide new insights. More powerful computers, algorithms, and platforms make assembling and sorting through these big haystacks much easier than before.

Niaz: Recently I have seen IBM has started to work with Big Data. What roles do companies like IBM play in this area?

Brian: IBM is just one of many companies that are racing “upstream” to analyze data on larger and more complex systems like an entire city by aggregating tweets, traffic, surveillance cameras, electricity consumption, emergency services which feed into each other. IBM is an example of an organization that has shifted from providing value from transforming raw materials into products like computers to transforming raw data into unexpected insights about how a system works — or doesn’t. The secret sauce is collecting existing data, building new data collection systems, and developing statistical models and platforms that are able to work in the big data domain of volume, variety, and velocity that traditional academic training doesn’t equip people.

Niaz: What are the benefits of Big Data to Business? How it is influencing innovation and business?

Brian: Consider the market capitalization of three major tech companies on a per capita basis: Microsoft makes software and hardware as well as running web services like Bing based on big data and is worth about $2.5 million per employee, Google mostly makes software and runs web services and is worth about $4.6 million per employee, and Facebook effectively just runs a web service of its social network site and is worth about $19 million per employee. These numbers may outliers or unreliable for a variety of reasons, but the trend suggests that organizations like Facebook focused solely on data produce more value per employee.

This obviously isn’t a prescription for every company — ExxonMobil, WalMart, GE, and Berkshire produce value in fundamentally different ways. But Facebook did find a way to capture and analyze data about the world — our social relationships and preferences — that was previously hidden. There are other processes happening beyond the world of social media that currently go uncaptured, but the advent of new sensors and opportunities for collecting data that will become ripe for the picking. Mobile phones in developing countries will reveal patterns of human mobility that could transform finance, transportation, and health care. RFIDs on groceries and other products could reveal patterns transportation and consumption that could reduce wasted food while opening new markets. Smart meters and grids could turn the tide against global climate change while lowering energy costs. Politicians could be made more accountable and responsive through crowd sourced fundraising and analysis of regulatory disclosures. The list of data out there waiting to be collected and analyzed boggles the mind.

Niaz: How do you define a Data Scientist? What are your suggestions you have for those who want to become a data scientist?

Brian: A data scientist needs familiarity with a wide set of skills, so much so that it’s impossible for them to be expert in all of them.

      • First, data scientists need the computational skills from learning a programming language like Python or Java so that they can acquire, cleanup, and manipulate data from databases and APIs, hack together different programs developed by people who are far more expert in network analysis or natural language processing, and use difficult tools like MySQL and Hadoop. There’s no point-and-click program out there with polished tutorials that does everything you’ll need from end-to-end. Data scientists spend a lot of time writing code, working at the command line, and reading technical documentation but there are tons of great resources like StackOverflow, GitHub, free online classes, and active and friendly developer communities where people are happy to share code and solutions.
      • Second, data scientists need statistical skills at both a theoretical and methodological level. This is the hardest part and favors people who have backgrounds in math and statistics, computer and information sciences, physical sciences and engineering, or quantitative social sciences. Theoretically, they need to know why some kinds of analyses should be run on some kinds but not other kinds of data and what the limitations of one kind of model are compared to others. Methodologically, data scientists need to actually be able to run these analyses using statistical software like R, interpret the output of the analyses, and do the statistical diagnostics to make sure all the assumptions that are baked into a model are actually behaving properly.
      • Third, data scientists need some information visualization and design skills so they can communicate their findings in an effective way with charts or interactive web pages for exploration. This means learning to use packages like ggplot in R or matplotlib in Python for statistical distributions, d3 in Javascript for interactive web visualizations, or Gephi for network visualizations.

All of the packages I mentioned are open-source which also reflects the culture in the data science community; expensive licenses for software or services are very suspect because others should be able to easily replicate and build upon your analysis and findings.

Niaz: Finally, what do you think about the impact of Big Data in our everyday life?

Brian: Big Data is a dual-use technology that can satisfy multiple goals, some of which may be valuable and others which may be unsavory. On one hand it can help entrepreneurs be more nimble and open new markets or researchers make new insights about how the world works, on the other hand, the Arab Spring suggested it can also reinforce the power of repressive regimes to monitor dissidents or unsavory organizations to do invasive personalized marketing.

Danah Boyd and Kate Crawford have argued persuasively about how the various possibilities of big data to address societal ills or undermine social structure obscure the very real but subtle changes that are happening right now that replace existing theory and knowledge, cloak subjectivity with quantitative objectivity, confuse bigger data with better data, separate data from context and meaning, raise real ethical questions, and create or reinforce inequalities.

Big data also raises complicated questions about who has access to data. On one hand, privacy is a paramount concern as organizations shouldn’t be collecting or sharing data about individuals without their consent. On the other hand, there’s also the expectation that data should be shared with other researchers so they can validate findings. Furthermore, data should be preserved and archived so that it is not lost to future researchers who want to compare or study changes over time.

Niaz: Brian, Thank you so much for giving me time in the midst of your busy schedule. It is really great to know the details of Big Data from you. I am wishing you good luck with your study, research, projects and works.

Brian: You are welcome. Good luck to you too.

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger on Big Data Revolution

2. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

3. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

4. James Kobielus on Big Data, Cognitive Computing and Future of Product

5. danah boyd on Future of Technology and Social Media

6. Irving Wladawsky-Berger on Evolution of Technology and Innovation

7. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

8. James Allworth on Disruptive Innovation

James Allworth: Disruptive Innovation

Editor’s Note: James Allworth is the director of strategy at Medallia. He is a Harvard Business School graduate. Previously he worked for ‘Apple’, ‘Booz & Company and co-authored New York Times best seller  ‘How will you measure your life. He is a writer at Harvard Business Review and a fellow of Professor Clay Christensens think-tank on Innovation. His work has been featured on bloomberg, business insider and reuters.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed James Allworth recently to gain his ideas and insights about Disruptive Innovation which is given below.

Niaz: James, you have been working with the father of disruptive innovation, Clay Christensen’s, for long time. You have done so many works in the field of Disruptive Innovation. Can you please give us a brief description of disruptive Innovation?

James: Disruptive innovation is the process by which novel technologies or business models — often times, vastly inferior to the existing solution — start at the bottom of the market, and by gradually getting better, move to replace the existing solution. Professor Christensen first identified the phenomenon when studying the disk drive industry; but it applies widely. Generally, the competitors start off being considered little more than “toys”, but by being vastly more accessible (both in terms of price and in terms of necessary expertise) they slowly move upmarket and take over the market. Once you understand how it happens, you’ll see it all over the place.

Niaz: What are the major examples of Disruptive Innovation to you?

James: There are examples everywhere. One of my favorite industries to look at is the computing industry. We started with mainframes, they were displaced by minicomputers, which in turn was displaced by the personal computer, then the laptop, and now the PC and laptop is being threatened by tablets and smartphones. In each case, the disruptive entrant had lower performance than the previous solution; often they were cheaper, too.

What’s really fascinating is that industries that have previously been immune to disruption are staring down the barrel of it right now. The internet is enabling all this to happen — whether it be Netflix threatening cable; or Uber threatening entrenched taxi monopolies; or Airbnb going after the hotels.

Niaz: So now, if we would like to differentiate innovation and disruptive innovation, what will be the core basis?

James: The performance of the solution is generally inferior to what was available previously, but it’s cheaper and more accessible. The array of programming options on cable, for instance, is vastly greater than Netflix. But Netflix is much cheaper. Hotels compete on the quality of the appointments and amenities; Airbnb is unlikely to be able to beat that head on, but by leveraging the internet and utilizing what would otherwise go to waste (people’s rooms) then they’re able to compete on a different axis of performance.

What’s also noticeable about disruptive innovation is that it’s rarely just technical innovation that drives it, but also business model innovation. Professor Christensen and Max Wessel wrote touched on this in their recent HBR article, on surviving disruption. There’s an “extendable core” in disruptors that enable them to topple the incumbents.

Niaz: Is it possible to disrupt Google? How?

James: Well, those are very big questions.

Google is interesting because it’s made its fortune disrupting others. But in becoming a big organization, it has created an Achilles heel just like any other big organization has — in its case; it has a very big addiction to advertising revenue. A French ISP just built ad blocking into its service by default — now, it looks like they have subsequently backed down (example here), but something like that becoming commonplace would make life very difficult for Google.

Niaz: As you know YouTube has been a great revolution. It has been changing the way we create and share art. Do you see any disruption in the way we create art? Will it be a concept like ‘Disruptive Art’

James: The wonderful thing about YouTube is that it’s created a publishing platform that anyone can gain access to, and you don’t need a lot of resources to do so. It’s enabled people to reach an audience they otherwise could not. You don’t need to have a deal with a big media company to create a movie or even a TV series now and get it published; artists and regular folks are now able to create a relationship directly with their fans. It’s this ability for the creator to get directly in touch with the fan/consumer that is what is so cool about YouTube and its ilk.

You’re already starting to see artists experiment with new business models that leverage this.

Niaz: Till today, technology and innovation mostly belong to Silicon Valley? What do you think about the core challenges for developing countries and their organizations to be innovative? How can they come up with disruptive innovative ideas, make things happen and sustain in the long run?

James: Disruption often starts out where there is non-consumption — where people can’t afford the existing solution. That means that emerging markets are going to be hotbeds of activity for disruptive innovation. You’re already starting to see this happen, with the $20 tablet from India for example: (click)

Niaz: Finally, our readers will love to know about your amazing book ‘How will you measure your life’. Can you please give us a brief of this life changing book?

James: The book is based on Professor Christensen’s class at Harvard Business School, using the theory to answer the big questions you really need to be asking about your life and your career. At no point do we claim to have the answers; it’s going to be different for everyone, so instead, we use the business theory to help equip readers with the tools required to find the answers for themselves.

We managed to make the New York Times best seller list, which we’ve just been humbled by. If your readers are interested in finding out more, details are up on the website (here), including a free excerpt.

Niaz: James, thank you so much for your time. I am wishing you very good luck for everything you do.

James: Thanks Niaz, and all the best!

_  _  _  _  ___  _  _  _  _

Further Reading:

1. Horace Dediu on Asymco, Apple and Future of Computing

2. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger on Big Data Revolution

3. Gerd Leonhard on Big Data and the Future of Media, Marketing and Technology

4. Brian Keegan on Big Data

5. Irving Wladawsky-Berger on Evolution of Technology and Innovation

6. Ely Kahn on Big Data, Startup and Entrepreneurship

7. danah boyd on Future of Technology and Social Media

Ovick Alam: BridgeWee

Editor’s Note: BridgeWee is a StartUp which assists English medium students to access public universities in Bangladesh. They are doing amazing works to open the doors of opportunity to English medium students. Ovick Alam, Founder and CEO of BridgeWee, has been working tirelessly to give access public university education to English medium students.

eTalk’s Niaz Uddin has interviewed Ovick Alam recently to gain insights about his ideas, current works and projects to bring positive changes in Bangladesh which is given below.

Niaz: What did bring about your interest in the Entrepreneurship theme?

Ovick: I have always wanted to make a difference to the society and entrepreneurship is a great way to create positive change and leave your mark. In developing countries like Bangladesh, you can find many problems and problems like opportunities for entrepreneurs. Being a student of country’s premier business school gave me confidence about entrepreneurship. When I was preparing for the fiercely competitive admission test of the public universities in Bangladesh, I faced many difficulties due to lack of guidance and proper support. Moreover, as I came from an English medium background, I found the process especially difficult. The admission process was different, but it was not clearly communicated and transparent. There was no preparation center to help English mediums students. More than 30,000 candidates fought for only 930 seats in the business school, so it was quite competitive! My struggle during this time inspired me to bridge this profound, yet ignored gap in the education sector of Bangladesh.

I think entrepreneurship is about developing innovative model to solve society’s problems sustainably and profitably. It is about really understanding the deeply rooted problems of the society and devising idea to solve that problem. It is not all about profits, it’s more about a meaningful contribution to the society. If the contribution is substantial, the society will reward you with profits and high brand equity. Successful organizations really make a difference to their community through their actions. They create a place in peoples’ hearts and minds through good work. In Bangladesh, businesses have a very narrow focus on financial returns. They miss out the broader picture of positioning powerful brands in consumers’ minds and use a holistic approach to business by acting as a responsible citizen. I want to see this change take place in Bangladeshi business culture.

Niaz: Please provide details of the actions you have taken that portray your passion and interest for the Entrepreneurship theme. What did make you decide to be actively involved in this theme?

Ovick: The fact that there was no one to help English medium students prepare for public university’s admission tests in Bangladesh. It gave me an opportunity to form an organization and help them out. I think it is very important for a country to make its public universities accessible to all segments of the society. It can help to bring all the different kinds of people with the different backgrounds under one platform and bridge the gap between them. There are a lot of differences and a huge gap between different mediums of education in Bangladesh. I was inspired to close this gap and help them understand each other and grow collectively. For that to happen, studying together in the best public university of the country would be a big step. I was also, motivated to help English medium students in taking preparation for the public university admission tests because they preferred going abroad as there are no other good educational institutions in Bangladesh.

Therefore, I started an organization called BridgeWee – which prepares English medium students for the public university admission tests of Bangladesh.

Niaz: Have you taken any sort of initiative (e.g. campaigns, fundraising, raising awareness of issues, starting a company, etc) related to this theme? Where did you get your inspiration to start the initiative?

Ovick: I have undertaken marketing campaign on campus and through Facebook. I went to different schools and gave small presentation about the idea that English medium students can also access country’s best universities like The University of Dhaka. I went to many coaching centers and talked to their teacher who taught senior students and tried to spread the words. I spent many hours explaining the complicated process of the admission procedure. I found that many people were interested, but did not have any guidance before I met them. This motivated me even more.  I used the social networking site Facebook to reach many students whom I could not reach physically. It really helped the flow of communication, both ways. Apart from that, I had to raise the money for my initial investment (which was very small). I did that through digging into some of my savings and then borrowing some money from friends.

Niaz: What’s the current status of the initiative you’ve taken?

Ovick: In 2009 BridgeWee started its journey as a pilot project in the Faculty of Business Studies in The University of Dhaka.

In 2009 – We prepared 6 English medium students for The University of Dhaka’s C-Unit admission test and 2 of them were successful. Our acceptance rate was 33.33%, whereas C-Unit’s acceptance rate was 3.5%.

In 2010 – We prepared 12 English medium students for The University of Dhaka’s admission test and 7 of them were successful. Our acceptance rate was 58.33%, whereas C-Unit’s acceptance rate was 2.88%.

As a part of expansion with an objective to accommodate more students, we have moved to a new place out of my home; it is a rented place in Mohammadpur, Dhaka. This is the first step towards bridging the gap in our education system; a unified one with equal access for all. BridgeWee allows the country’s jewels to congregate in one platform, interact and learn to serve the country – thus reducing brain drain from Bangladesh and taking the student community one-step closer to achieving greater concord.

Niaz:   What are the current problems you’re facing in carrying out this initiative? What measures are you taking to try to overcome them?

Ovick: Most start-ups face the same problem in Bangladesh – funding. BridgeWee had the same problem. When it started, I arranged classes in a room in my home. From then onwards it grew. This year due to higher demand, we have rented a new and bigger space in Dhaka. However, funds for investment and expansion are extremely difficult to get. Local banks do not support these small ventures and there is no way to get a loan on against your ideas in Bangladesh. Getting a place in the capital city is difficulty and expensive. However, BridgeWee managed some money to finance its expansion, mainly form previous two years’ profits and with the help of loans from relatives.

Another difficult task was to bring about an adaptive change in the minds of English medium students. Many students from this segment think they do not belong to this country and that public universities discriminated against them. Therefore, they want to settle abroad from a young age. They are also very frustrated because they do not have the same access as the mainstream students do. I had to work very hard to bring about this adaptive change in students, their parents and among the teachers and administration of English medium schools.

Niaz: How has your proactive involvement changed your views about this theme? What have you learnt from the actions you’ve taken? What are your insights on Entrepreneurship?

Ovick: I have been proactive about this issue and taken an initiative at the right time. Moreover, I did not start big because the time was not ripe; I mean the market was not big enough in 2009. Today I can say that I have been successful in changing the mind-set of many English medium students and there is a solid demand for Bridgewee’s service to satisfy them profitably. I had to do a lot of research to develop the materials and develop the curriculum. This knowledge or intellectual property is not available to others and this fact has helped me to create a blue ocean with no competitors in the market. I believe early bird catches the warm. That is what I tried to do. For any leader or entrepreneur, it is very important sense shifts in social needs and understands the dynamics of the change very well. A good understanding of the society is the first step to bring about any change.

My experience with BridgeWee has taught me that one has to be very proactive and hard working to bring about the desired change in the society. It is also important to get help form people. Whatever little I have achieved is due to invaluable help form some people who has always guided me and supported my initiative. Moreover, you need to form partnerships with various individuals and/or organizations – which will be mutually beneficial for both of them. At the same time, you have to shrug-off the pessimistic judgments that others will make about your work or its potentiality. To be an entrepreneur, you have to believe in what you do. For me, I believe that BridgeWee is making a difference to the society and it is very fulfilling and inspiring for any entrepreneur. If you can really create an impact, rewards will follow. However, it is not easy to work against uncertainty, especially when you have invested a lot of time and money on something.

Another important learning from my work is that ‘Patience is a virtue’. Sometimes you try very hard and yet nothing happens, then all of a sudden, everything falls into place. However, if you give up during the bad patches, then you will not be there to enjoy the harvest of your hard labor. William Feather framed it precisely “Success is a matter of hanging on when others have let go”.

Niaz: What do you think of your peers are thinking about this theme?

Ovick: I am a third-year student in a business school in a third world country with very low per capita income. Moreover, I do not belong to some of the few rich, lucky families. Therefore, life is very difficult. I have to ensure that I contribute to the family and study at the same time. Most of the profits from BridgeWee goes to finance everyday expenditures of our family and financing my younger sister’s education. With this situation, it is very difficult for any person to be an entrepreneur because you don’t get money to invest. However, BridgeWee is a kind of initiative that requires little investment. However, as we(My peers and I) look to the future, it is extremely difficult for us to deal with the uncertainty associated with business. Most of my peers advise me to try to get a good job after my under-graduation next year. That is a much more safe option; you get a decent amount of money coming in every month. You do not need to deal with uncertainty and you a lead a decent life.

Although few in numbers, there are some friends who want to become entrepreneurs; but they suffer from harsh realities. Most of them come from a humble background like that of mine. They have great ideas and are very bright with excellent education in country’s premier business school. However, in Bangladesh you will see hardly see a young person getting loans for investment if they do not have a rich background. This fact has kept our country small, the gap between rich and poor is stretching everyday and most of the educated people are passive observers of the situation as they are not powerful.

 Niaz: Thank you so much Ovick for your time. And all the best wishes for BridgeWee as well as for your all of your upcoming endeavors.

Ovick: Thank you too!

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1. Stephen Walt on Global Development

2. Joseph Nye on Global Politics

3. Juliana Rotich on Social Entrepreneurial Innovation

4. Shaka Senghor on Writing My Wrongs

5. Jillian C. York on Freedom of Expression, Social Media and Nonprofits

6. Robert Stavins on Environmental Economics

7. Shaba Binte Amin on Poverty Fighter Foundation